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Acheron

(499 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀχέρων; Achérōn). [German version] [1] River in Epirus River in  Epirus, rising from the slopes of Tomarus [2. 166] (in the 4th cent. BC territory of the Molossi: Liv. 8,24,2), flows through the narrow gorges of Thesprotia (Thuc. 1,46,3); when it entered the plain its sluggish meanders formed in antiquity the swamp-like lake Ἀχερουσία λίμνη ( Acherousía límnē, today dried up). According to Str. 7,7,5 (as in Thuc. 1,46,3 based on Hecataeus [2. 443-469, 478]), it entered the sea near the γλυκὺς λιμήν ( glykỳs limḗn ‘Sweet-water harbour’, a station on the Roman   cursus publicus

Neritum

(148 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήριτον; Nḗriton). Originally probably a poetic designation for ‘mountain forest’ [1. 185], the name of a forested mountain on Ithaca (Hom. Od. 9,22; 13,351). In the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,632) the significance is unclear: N. can be understood either as a mountain [2. 591-596] or as an island or city next to Ithaca (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,271; Ov. Met. 13,712; Mela 2,110). Other ancient authors identify N. with the town of Nericus, which they localised on Leucas (cf. Plin. HN 4,5). Hence in ancient authors and in the MSS the forms Nericus and Neritus are mixed u…

Lissa

(169 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Island off the Dalmatian coast Island off the Dalmatian coast opposite Iader (Plin. HN 3,152), modern Ugljan. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 206, 208f. [German version] [2] Town in Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λίσσα; Líssa). Town attested epigraphically on the south-west coast of Lycia in Asia Minor. Not identical with the place where the inscriptions [3; 6] were found, a Hellenistic tower farmstead in Kızılağaç on Kargın Gölü (different in [1. 520; …

Phoetiae

(138 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Φοιτίαι/ Phoitíai, also Φυτία/ Phytía). City in Acarnania (Acarnanians), 4 km to the northwest of modern Bambini. In a strategically favourable location P. dominated a fertile plateau in the interior of Acarnania and was one of the leading cities of the Acarnanian Koinon. During the division of Acarnania in the 3rd century BC P. remained Aetolian until conquered by Philip  [7] V in 219 BC. A plan of P. can be found in [1]. Cf. IG IX 12 2, 389, 602; mentions in theorodokoi lists: IG IV2 95 Z. 11; SEG 36, 3…

Cephallenia

(929 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεφαλληνία; Kephallēnía). The largest of the Ionian islands west of Greece, with an area of about 761 km2, a length of 50 km with a north-south orientation and a maximum width of 25 km. Because of the contour of the island and the high limestone mountains (modern Enos, Efmorfia, Agia Dinati), several separate settlement areas existed which only in modern times were linked by roads. From the main body of the island to the north protrudes the Erisos peninsula, while in the west, the latter is link…

Arachthus

(72 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄραχθος; Árachthos). Greatest river of southern  Epirus (also Ἄραθθος, Ἄρατθος; Áraththos, Áratthos CEG 1,145; BMC Corinth 107; Str. 7,7,8; Dionysius Calliphontus 42); rises near the Molossi on the Lacmon (Pindus); navigable from its mouth on the Gulf of Ambracia to  Ambracia. Shifting river-bed in its lower reaches from ancient times [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. N. Doukellis, É. Fouache, in: BCH 116, 1992, 375-382 2 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967 3 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 115-121.

Cissa

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Also Gissa, Kissa (Plin. HN 3,140; 151). North Dalmatian island (modern Pag, Croatia) of the  Mentores (Scyl. 21). Ancient settlement near modern Časka, relationship with the Roman Calpurnii family. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 199 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Aeginium

(140 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίνιον; Aigínion). Town in Tymphania, originally taken as belonging to Epirus (Str. 7,7,9), but from 191 BC belonging to Macedonia, from 167 BC to the Thessalonian Hestiaiotis. Strategically important location in the upper valley of the Peneius (impregnable according to Liv. 32,15,4), destroyed by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War in 167 BC (Liv. 45,27). Its localization close to the modern Kalambaka [3. 121-123; 1. 898] (medieval Stagoi [4. 262 f.]) seems to be certain, de…

Amphilochi, Amphilochia

(306 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμφίλοχοι, Ἀμφιλοχία; Amphílochoi, Amphilochía

Issa

(187 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἴσσα; Íssa). Island and city off the Dalmatian coast, modern Vis, Croatia. The settlers who came from Syracuse to I. in the late 4th cent. BC (Scymn. 413f; Diod. Sic. 15,14,2) [3; 4] established colonies in their turn: Tragurium, Epetium and a settlement on Corcyra Melaina (SEG 43, 348) [3]. Elevated by Rome in 230/229 BC to a civitas libera et foederata [1. 100], in 167 BC I. was declared exempt from taxes. In 56 BC a legation from I. went to Caesar (SEG 43, 350). From the 1st cent. BC part of the administrative region of  Salona [1. 106f…

Atintani

(139 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτιντᾶνες, Ἀτιντανοί; Atintânes, Atintanoí). The localization is controversial because of contradictory details supplied by ancient authors: according to App. Ill. 7, an Illyrian, according to Str. 7,7,8; Scyl. 26, an Epirotic tribe. [1] therefore identifies two tribes: the Atintani east of Epidamnus (Polyaenus, Strat. 4,11), in 229 BC in alliance with Rome (Pol. 7,9), after 205 belonging to Macedonia (Liv. 27,30; 45,30; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀκαρνανία); the Atintanes, by contrast, north…

Ithoria

(85 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Ἰθωρία; Ithōría). Fortified settlement in Aetolia, destroyed in 219 BC by Philip V (Pol. 4,64,9f.). Finds within the line of the Hellenistic walls on the left bank of the  Achelous [1] on the hilltop above the modern village of Hagios Ilias date from the Mycenaean to the early Roman periods. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography S. Bommeljé (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 74 Pritchett 7, 15f. R. Scheer, s.v. I., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 284.

Potidania

(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ποτειδανία/ Poteidanía). City in Aetolia (Aetolians, Aetolia, with map) in the lands of the Apodoti, identified with the ruins southeast of modern Kambos on the middle reaches of the Mornos river by liberation documents (SEG 41, 528) of 135/4 BC found there. Cf. Thuc. 3,96,2; Liv. 28,8,9. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 49-52  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 301.

Corcyra

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Today Corfu (Κόρκυρα, Kórkyra, Lat. Corcyra; the island of Corfu). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] A. Name The northernmost of the Ionian islands, always referred to as C. on coins and local inscriptions, but in literature and other inscriptions (IG II-III2 96; SEG 25, 354) also called Κέρκυρα, Lat. Corcyra, today officially Kérkyra. The name Corfu has been in common use since the 10th cent. and stems from the Greek word Koryphḗ (‘summit’), named after the fortress overlooking the medieval and the modern city. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] B. …

Pale

(77 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Πάλη/ Pálē). Town west of Cephallenia on the Paliki peninsula north of modern Lixuri. Hdt. 9,28,5 confuses Παλέες/ Palées with αλεῖοι/ Waleíoi, 'citizens of Elis', when mentioning the involvement of the troops of P. in the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC. There are hardly any ancient remains. Inscriptions: IG IX 1, 645f.; Coins: BMC, Gr (Peloponnese) 84-88. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)

Cranii

(66 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Κράνιοι). City west of  Cephallenia, east of the main city today named Argostoli. It supported Athens in the  Peloponnesian War: Thuc. 2,30; 33; 5,35; 56; Str. 10,2,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Kalligas, Ἱερὸ Δήμητρας καὶ Κόρης στὴν Κράνη Κεφαλλονιᾶς, in: ArchE, 1978, 136-146 R. Speich, Korfu und die Ion. Inseln, 1982, 263-265.

Oricus

(147 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (Ὤρικος/ Ṓ rikos, also Ὠρικός/ Ōrikós, Ὠρικόν/ Ōrikón). Port in Epirus, at the southern curve of the gulf of the same name (today the Gulf of Vlorë in Albania). According to legend, it was founded by Euboeans (Euboea) on their return from Troy. It is mentioned as early as the 6th cent. BC in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 106. It had close ties with Corcyra [1], from the 4th cent. BC on and probably earlier. The city, which lay …

Actium

(808 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὸ Ἄκτιον; tò Áktion, Actium). Flat, sandy promontory (medieval: Punta) opposite the modern Preveza at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf (Str. 10,2,7; [9]), in ancient times belonging to  Anactorium; location of the decisive battle between Octavianus ( Augustus) and  Antonius [9]. It was also the location of the sanctuary of  Apollo Actius, founded by the Corinthian settlers of Anactorium in about 600 BC; its great age is confirmed by archaeological finds (kouroi of the early 6th c…

Calydon

(553 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Καλυδών; Kalydṓn). [German version] [1] Eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name The eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name, C. [3], son of  Aetolus and  Pronoe, brother of Pleuron, husband of Aeolia and through her the father of Epicaste and Protogenea (Apollod. 1,58-59). A similar genealogically linked construct in Deimachus (FGrH 65 F 1 = schol. Hom. Il. 217-218 Erbse) where the succession Endymion-Aetolus-Pleuron-C. is found, also the names of the region and both of the largest cities. According to Steph. Byz. s.v., either Endymion or Aetolus is the father of C. C. is a…
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