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(2,815 words)

Author(s): Matuschek, Stefan | Hübner, Ulrich | Recki, Birgit | Huxel, Kirsten | Klie, Thomas
[English Version] I. Kulturgeschichtlich Als grundlegendes kulturbildendes Phänomen und damit zugleich als Wesensmerkmal des Menschen hat der niederländische Kulturhistoriker Johan Huizinga das S. bestimmt. Seine These vom »homo ludens« tritt ergänzend neben die anthropologischen Theorien vom »homo sapiens« und »homo faber« und andere Begründungen der Kultur in Vernunft und Arbeit. Vorausgesetzt ist dabei folgende Definition: »S. ist eine freiwillige Handlung oder Beschäftigung, die innerhalb gewis…


(1,345 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hoheisel, Karl | Osiek, Carolyn | Sprondel, Walter M.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Religious Studies – III. House Church (in Early Christianity) – IV. Sociology I. Archaeology Functionally, the house was a building which, in contrast to a palace, served as a private dwelling. While circular structures have been identified in prehistoric Palestine, from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age the broad-room type of house dominated, that is, a one-room and one-floor structure with a single entrance on the long side. In addition, there were sometimes apsidi…


(5,866 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hütteroth, Wolf | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Eck, Werner | Carmel, Alex | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bezeichnungen Die Siedlungsgebiete, die von den Philistern besiedelt und nach den ass. Eroberungen im akkad. Sprachgebrauch als Palasˇtu u.ä. zusammenfassend benannt worden waren, dürften die Grundlage jener Bez. bilden, die im Griech. erstmals bei Herodot (als Sy´ria hē´) Palaisti´ne (Hdt. 1,105; 2,104.106; 3,5.91; 4,39; 7,89) belegt ist, auch wenn das zu vermutende aram. Zwischenglied der pers. Zeit, auf das der griech. Sprachgebrauch zurückgehen dürfte, (bisher) nicht beleg…


(2,847 words)

Author(s): Hübnerr, Ulrich | Uehlinger, Christoph | Sommer, Andreas Urs | Hübner, Ulrich | Ilisch, Lutz
[German Version] I. Definition Numismatics is the historical science of money and coinage. The name derives from the Greek and Latin words for “coin”: νόμισμα/ nómisma, nummus. Following some pioneering work in the Renaissance, numismatics has established itself as a modern science at least since Johann Hilarius Eckhel (1737–1798), with its own methodological tools. II. Importance 1. Archaeology. As usually authorized official documents, coins with their epigraphic and iconographic information are of great value as sources for the history of civilizati…


(6,836 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hütteroth, Wolf | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Eck, Werner | Carmel, Alex | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Geography – III. Archaeology – IV. History and Society – V. History of Religions I. Terminology The area settled by the Philistines, referred to collectively in Akkadian by such names as palaštu after their conquest by Assyria, probably provided the basis for the Greek ( Sýria hḗ) Palaistínē, first found in Herodotus (1.105; 2.104, 106; 3.5, 91; 4.39; 7.89), even though the hypothetical intermediate Aramaic expression of the Persian period, the likely basis of the Greek form, is still unattested. To the exten…

Music and Musical Instruments

(15,805 words)

Author(s): Sullivan, Lawrence | Kammerer, Stefan | Hübner, Ulrich | Bohlman, Philip V. | Reinert, Benedikt | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History I. Religious Studies In the history of civilization, music has played a role in many spheres. It accompanies work, provides entertainment, facilitates dancing (Dance), features in religious ceremonies and other forms of religious expression, and can be used for therapeutic purposes. Music for its own sake as an art form is a secondary development. Speech and song are not always clearly separate but depend on the language involved; production of words at various ¶ pitches and vocal registers can represent a form of music, s…
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