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Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41). Before Aratus [2] he played a prominent part and in 255 he was the first to be elected sole strategos (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Ptolemai…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Discoduratera

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Δισκοδουρατέραι; Diskodouratérai). A considerable emporium between the modern villages of Gostilitsa and Slaveikovo on the left bank of the Yantra (ancient Iatrus), 12 km west of Drianovo, 32 km south-west of Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded by Augusta Traiana probably during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Enjoyed considerable prosperity under the Severan emperors, when it was fortified; under Aurelian incorporated into the territory of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Numerous inscriptions ([1. 21ff.], IGBulg II, 137-145) and important ruins. Burian, Jan (Prague) Biblio…

Carpi

(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …

Carsium

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort on the embankment road of the Danube, built under Trajan, modern Hîrşova/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3 Carsio; It. Ant. 224; Not. Dign. or. 39,22 Carso; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,2 Carsion; Ptol. 3,10,5 Κάρσους; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20 Καρσώ). Road junction, ford across the Danube. Destroyed by the Huns, rebuilt, into the 6th cent. garrison for military units, amongst them the legio I Italica, ala II Hispanorum et Aravacorum, milites Scythici. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography R. Vulpe, Histoire ancienne de la Do…

Transmarisca

(157 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τρασμαρίσκα/ Trasmaríska). Roman fort in Moesia Inferior (Moesi with map) on the right bank of the lower Danube (Ister [2]; Ptol. 3,10,11: Τρομαρίσκα/ Tromaríska; Procop. Aed. 4,7,7; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,1: Stamarisca) between Sexaginta Prista (modern Ruse) and Durostorum, modern Tutrakan (county of Silistra, Bulgaria). T. gained significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards, when the Cohors I Thracum was temporarily stationed in the fort. At the end of the 3rd cent. increased defence measures were taken on the lower Danube (Limes V), the fo…

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Fort and settlement in Pannonia inferior on the river Savus and on the road from Siscia to Sirmium, modern Slavonski Brod in Croatia. The road starting at Siscia bifurcated north of Marsonia; the northern branch led to Sirmium via Cibalae, the southern branch via Marsonia and Saldis. In late antiquity, auxilia ascarii are mentioned as the garrison of Marsonia (Not. Dign. Occ. 32,43). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. M., RE 14, 1981 TIR L 34, Budapest, 1968, 78.

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Cibalae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Important road junction in Pannonia inferior, modern Vinkovci (Croatia). Municipium since the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3267), colonia Aurelia from the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 2833). Monuments: remains of buildings, water pipes, thermae, graves, inscriptions, small finds. In AD 314 Licinius was defeated in a battle near C. by Constantine the Great (Eutr. 10,5; Zos. 2,18,4, also describing the location of C.). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 46f.

Brongus

(63 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Βρόγγος, Βάργος, Μάργος; Bróngos, Bárgos, Márgos). River in Moesia superior, rising on the eastern slope of the Scardus mountain range (Stara Planina) and flows into the Danube above Viminacium; now Morava (Hdt. 4,49; Str. 7,5,12; Ptol. 3,9,3; Eutr. 9,13). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography D. Dečev, Die thrak. Sprachreste, 1957, 90 Vl. Georgiev, La toponymie ancienne de la péninsule Balcanique, 1961, 33.

Tiarantus

(59 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τιαραντός; Tiarantós). Left bank tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), rising in the lands of the Scythae; smaller and turned farther westward than the Pyretus (Hdt. 4,48,2 f.), possibly identifiable with the modern Seret. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 762  A. Corcella, in: S. M. Medaglia (ed.), Erodoto, Le Storie, 4, 1993, here 272 (with comm.).

Vetus Salina

(220 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement ( canabae and vicus) on the Aquincum - Intercisa - Altinum Limes road (Ptol. 2,16,4: Σαλίνον/ Salínon; It. Ant. 245,4: Vetus Salinae; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,16,37: Vetusalina; Tab. Peut. 5,4: Vetusalo; Geogr. Rav 220,8: Belsalino = Bet(u)salino?; CIL III 10305: ' cives Romani ad Vetussalinas consistentes'/"Roman citizens settled at VS"), modern Adony in the megye of Fejér in Hungary. Originally a wood-and-earth fort was built in VS (three building periods from the middle of the 1st cent. until the 12…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Florentiana

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Φλωρεντίανα; Phlōrentíana: Procop. Aed. 4,4,1-3). Roman fortress on the Danuvius (Danube) near the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok). Originally in Moesia Superior, from AD 271 in Dacia Ripensis, probably modern Florentin near Vidin in Bulgaria. The fortress, destroyed in late antiquity, was rebuilt at the time of Justinian for strategic reasons. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 75 (Bulgarian with German summary) TIR L. 34, 1968, 59 (bibliography).
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