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(95 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Messapische Stadt, ca. 17 km südöstl. von Brindisi, h. Valesio. Baleθas/Faleθas auf Silbermünzen (4. oder 5.Jh. v.Chr.) [1. 226-235]. B. in Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Balesium bei Plin. nat. 3,101, Valetium bei Mela 2,66, Balentium in der Tab. Peut. 7,2, Valentiam im It. Burd. 609,8. Arch. Überreste sind aus messapischer und röm. Zeit erhalten (bis 5.Jh. n.Chr.) [2; 3]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. Siciliano, Le zecche della Messapia, in: Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi sulla Magna Grecia 30, 1991, 224-254 2 J.S. Boersma, D.G. Yntema, Valesio, 1987 3…


(123 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Stadt der Sal(l)entini (Plin. nat. 3,105: Aletini), h. Alezio bei Gallipoli, Ἀλητία Strab. 6,3,6, Ἀλήτιον Ptol. 3,1,76, Baletium Tab. Peut. 7,2, Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Valentium Guidonis Geographia 29; 72. Gräber u. a. arch. [1. 9-38, 165-174; 2] und epigraphische [1. 59-113, 215-263; 4; 5] Zeugnisse der prähistor., messapischen, sallentinischen und röm. Zeit (bis ins 5. Jh. n. Chr.). Messapii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 Atti dell VIII Convegno dei Comuni messapici peuceti e dauni, 1983 2 G. P. Ciongoli, Alezio, in: Archeologia dei Messapi. Catalo…


(126 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] ( Sagra, -ae, fem.). Kleiner Fluß in Bruttium südl. von Kaulonia, h. Turbolo, wo um 560 v. Chr. die Lokroi [2] über ein zahlenmäßig weit überlegenes Heer von Kroton angeblich mit Hilfe der Dioskuroi siegten (Strab. 6,1,10; Cic. nat. deor. 2,6; 3,11; Plin. nat. 3,95; Plut. Aemilius Paullus 25,1); daher das Sprichwort “Wahrhaftiger als das Geschehen an der S.” (Paroem. 1,36). Altäre der Dioskuren an der S. erwähnt Strab. l.c. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography R. van Compernolle, Ajax et les Dioscures au sécours des Locriens sur les rives de la S., in: J. Bibauw (Hrsg.),…

Iapyges, Iapygia

(735 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] People and region in the extreme south-east of Italy (modern Puglia). First mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 86f.) together with the unidentified settlements of Eleútioi (Ἐλεύτιοι), Peukaíoi (Πευκαῖοι, possibly equivalent to Πευκέτιοι; Peukétioi) and the pólis Chandánē (πόλις Χανδάνη). Hecataeus (loc. cit.) may also mean the I. with ‘town in Italia’ (πόλις ἐν τῆι Ἰταλίαι; pólis en tēi Italíai). According to Hdt. 4,99 the peninsula south of the isthmus between Tarentum and Brundisium was the acroterium of I. [7. 170-172]. Antiochus (FGrH 5…


(122 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] City of the  Sal(l)entini (Plin. HN 3,105: Aletini), today Alezio by Gallipoli, Ἀλητία ( Alētía) Str. 6,3,6, Ἀλήτιον ( Alḗtion) Ptol. 3,1,76, Baletium Tab. Peut. 7,2, Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Valentium Guidonis Geographia 29; 72 graves and other archaeological [1. 9-38, 165-174; 2] and epigraphical [1. 59-113, 215-263; 4; 5] evidence of the prehistoric, Messapian, Sallentine and Roman periods (up into the 5th cent. AD).  Messapii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 Atti dell VIII Convegno dei Comuni messapici peuceti e dauni, 1983 2 G. P. Ciongoli, Alezio, in: A…


(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…


(177 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Νέαιθος/ Néaithos), Strab. 6,1,12; Ναύαιθος/ Naúaithos, Apollodorus FHG 1,180 fr. 3, from νε- or ναυ- + αἴθω - but cf. [6]). River in Bruttium to the north of Croton (Plin. HN 3,97), rising in the Sila mountains, modern Neto. Allegedly so called because it was there that the captured Trojan women burnt the Achaeans' ships  (Lycophr. 921 with schol.; Str. 6,1,12: hence many Achaean settlements on the N.; schol. Theocr. 4,24; Euphorion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀσκανία; Suda s.v. Ναίεθος; Et…


(234 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Μέδμα; Médma). Locrian colony (Thuc. 5,5,3; Scymn. 308; Str. 6,1,5; EM 581,15) founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC and located on the west coast of Italy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 81; Μέσμα/ Mésma, Scyl. 12; Plin. HN 3,73), near the eponymous spring and south of the eponymous river (the modern Mesima) [1; 4. 114ff.], with its own emporium, the modern Rosarno. At the turn of the 6th/5th cents., it was victoriously allied with Hipponium and Locri against Croton, and in 422 with Hipponium against Locri (Thuc. 5,5,3).…


(100 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Messapian town, c. 17 km south-east of Brindisi, today Valesio. Baleθas/Faleθas on silver coins (4th or 5th cent. BC) [1. 226-235]. B. in Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Balesium in Plin. HN 3,101, Valetium in Mela 2,66, Balentium in the Tab. Peut. 7,2, Valentiam in the It. Burd. 609,8. Archaeological remains from Messapian and Roman periods (until the 5th cent. AD) [2; 3] have been found. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. Siciliano, Le zecche della Messapia, in: Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi sulla Magna Grecia 30, 1991, 224-254 2 J. S. Boersma, D. G. Yntema, V…


(38 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Community in the north of Brundisium (also Carbinium): Guido, Geographia 27; 71, modern Carovigno; inscriptions and remains from the Messapian period (8th-2nd cents. BC). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography M. Lombardo, I Messapi e la Messapia, 1992, 222-224.


(128 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Messapian-Roman city in Calabria between Brundisium and Hydruntum (It. Ant. 118,3; Luppia, Tab. Peut. 7,1) with a harbour on the Adriatic built under the emperor Hadrian (Paus. 6,19,9; Ptol. 3,1,12; Mela 2,4; Str. 6,3,6). Roman municipium in the 2nd Augustan region (Plin. HN 3,101); modern Lecce. Messapian and Latin inscriptions. Remains: walls and tombs (4th-2nd cents. BC), Roman theatre and amphitheatre (cf. Guido, Cosmographia 28). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1BTCGI 8, 1990, 520-522 2 L. Giardino, P…


(150 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars (Μέταυρος; Métauros). River (Plin. HN 3,73), modern Petrace, and town ( Taurianum, Mela 2,68; Geogr. Rav. 4,36) in Bruttium ( Bruttii) on the Tyrrhenian Sea, founded by Zancle (Solin. 2,11) or Locri (Steph. Byz., s.v. Μ.). Home of the poet Stesichorus (Steph. Byz.; Suda s.v. Στησίχορος) [2], modern Gioia Tauro. Archaeological remains of a necropolis (archaic and Imperial periods) in Contrada Pietra [1; 4]; architectural terracotta finds from the archaic period [4]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. De F…


(319 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] [1] City of the Sal(l)entini City of the Sal(l)entini, founded by Idomeneus [1] (Varro in Prob. in Verg. Ecl. 6,31), probably identical with Οὐερητόν/ Ouerētón (Str. 6,3,5: originally Barís; Ptol. 3,1,76; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Veretum) at Cape Leuca; modern Santa Maria di Vereto on the eastern coast of Italy with ancient remains; Messapian and Roman inscriptions [1; 2]. Str. 6,3,6 is unclear as to whether Hyrie at Hdt. 7,170 is to be identified with U. [1] or U. [2]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 C. Pagliara, Fonti per la storia di Veretum, in: Annali della F…


(102 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Ταισία; Taisía). City in Bruttium of unknown location near Rhegium (according to [2] near Motta San Giovanni, but cf. [1; 3. 267]). Station of Delphic theōrodókoi (SGDI 2580, Z. 88: 3rd/2nd century BC; [4]), presumably identical with the fortress of Tisia (App. Hann. 188; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τισία) or Isia (Diod. 37,2,13). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 E. Pais, Tisiae ed Isiae, in: id. (ed.), Italia antica, 1922, 111-122 2 C. Turano, T., in: Klearchos 13, 1971, 19-37 3 P. G. Guzzo, Le città scomparse della Magna Grecia, 1982 4 G. Manganaro, Città di Si…

Bruttii, Bruttium

(543 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Βρέττιοι; Bréttioi). Italian tribe of Lucanian descent (Str. 5,3,1; Just. Epit. 23,1; Diod. Sic. 16,15; the name is possibly of pre-Lucanian origin; equation with Βρέντιοι; Bréntioi impossible) in the region south of a line from Laus to Thurii (Str. 6,1,4); its settlement area is generally referred to as Bruttium. Apparently, B. was the Lucanian term for ‘slaves’ or ‘rebels’ (δραπέται, ἀποστάται): Diod. Sic. 16,15; Str. 6,1,4 [8. 29-53]. Prior to 357 BC, the B. lived in the Sila Forest as shepherds and c…


(336 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Indigenous name of the Messapians in the southernmost part of regio II, near the Cape of Iapygia (Cape Leuca) (Str. 6,3,1; cf. Mela 2,66; but Degrassi, FCap. XX: de Sallentineis Messapieisque). According to legend, the S. under Idomeneus [1] came with the Illyrii and the Locri [1] (Varro, Rust. 3,6; Verg. Aen. 3,400; Verrius Flaccus in Fest. 440; Solin. 2,10; cf. Str. 6,3,5: ápoikoi from Crete) from Lyctus to Italy, where the Cape of Iapygia was called Promunturium Sallentinum after them (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51; Serv. Aen. 3,400; cf. Tab. Peut. 7,2). In …


(231 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Mountains in Bruttium Heavily forested mountains in Bruttium (Str. 6,1,9; Plin. HN 3,74; Alfius in Fest. 150 L.; Verg. G. 219-223; Aen. 12,715-717), presumably corresponding to Aspromonte (Montalto, 1,956 m) and Serre in the south of Bruttium, but not to the modern S. [1; 3]. Abundant stock of timber, extraction of the prized Bruttian pitch ([1; 2]; Cic. Brut. 85; amphora stamp: Bruttia pix [2]). According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 20,15, at the end of the war with Pyrrhus [3] the Bruttii (cf. Vibius Sequester, flumina 205: Sila Bruttiorum) ceded half of the S. to t…


(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…


(88 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Town in Calabria (Plin. HN 3,105: Aezetini). Ἀζητινῶν on bronze coins of the 3rd cent. BC [1; 3. 99-116], Ezetium in Tab. Peut. 6,5, and Geogr. Rav. 4,35. Modern Castiello (near Rutigliano). Monuments: large wall ring of the 4th to 3rd cents. BC, graves and other archaeological remains dating from the 6th cent. BC to the 2nd/3rd cent. AD [2; 3. 13f., 66-72].  Peucetii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 HN 45 2 M. T. Giannotta, s.v. Castiello, BTCGI 5, 125- 127 3 Il territorio di Rutigliano in età antica, 1992.

Messapians, Messapia

(730 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιοι/ Messápioi, Μεσσαπία/ Messapía). A people and region in the extreme southeast of Italy. According to Str. 6,3,1; 6,3,5, these are Greek terms for the Iapyges and Iapygia, south of the isthmus between Taras/Tarentum and Brundisium (Str. 6,3,1; 5). Their indigenous name was partly Salentinoi (on the southern tip and the Ionian coast), partly Kalabroi. According to most sources, the terms designated all of southeastern Italy, including the Daunii (or Daunia), the Peucetii (or Peucetia), and the Iapyges or Iapygia (Pol. 3,88; …
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