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Celsus, [I]

(756 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
[German version] (Κέλσος; Kélsos). Platonic writer, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. AD; author of ‘The True Doctrine (Ἀληθὴς λόγος, Alēthḕs lógos), an anti-Christian text thoroughly refuted by the Christian  Origenes (at the request of his friend and patron Ambrosius), in his eight volume ‘Against the Text of Celsus entitled: The True Doctrine [1. 180-301]. Nothing is known about the ethical work announced by C. (8,76). Everything we do know about him and his work comes down to us via Origen, and even he was entirely dependent on the Alēthḕs lógos for his conclusions regarding C.'s person, period, teaches and opinions. Although Origen acknowledges C.'s view of himself as a follower of Plato (4,83), he fa…

Atticus

(504 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Platonic philosopher, c. AD 176 (Ἀττικος; Áttikos) Platonic philosopher, mentioned in the chronicle of Eusebios in AD 176 [1. 16, 148], teacher of  Harpocration of Argus, author of commentary on Plato's Timaeus [1. 50, 215f.], Phaedon (?) [1. 30, 190f.] and Phaedrus (?) [1. 42, 197]; the fragments 40-42 Des Places, fr. 40-42 Des Places, which could refer to a commentary on the ‘ Categories of Aristotle [1. 248, 258f.], come from the tract ‘against those who pretend to be able to explain the teachings of Plato through those of Aristotle [1. 64, 247f.]. In his explanations of Plato, A. appears to be a shrewd philologist [1. 180f., 215; 2. …

Severus

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Σευῆρος; Seuêros). [German version] [1] Platonist, 2nd cent.? Platonist, probably 2nd cent. AD. He wrote a monograph On the soul [1. 80, 299; 2. 409-13, 428 f., 435 f.] and a commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [1. 52, 217 f.…

Nigrinus

(156 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
[German version] (Νιγρῖνος/ Nigrînos). Middle Platonist philosopher of the 2nd cent. AD, known only from a text of the same name by Lucianus [1], who depicted him as a teacher working in Rome. He attributed to …

Hierax

(335 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ἱέραξ; Hiérax). [German version] [1] H. of Antiochia, strategos of Ptolemy VI after 146 BC H. of Antiochia, deserted Demetrius [7] I for Alexander [13] Balas (Diod. Sic. 33,3), and then deserted him in 146 BC for Ptolemy VI, whom he had proclaimed king by the Antiochenes (Diod. Sic. 32,9 c). He had a high position at the court and, as strategos (?) of Ptolemy VIII, he foiled the uprising of  Galestes, but then was eliminated by the king (Diod. Sic. 33,22; FGrH 87 F 4). PP 1/8,264; 2, 2163; 6, 17012. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Commander in chief of Ptolemy IX in 88 BC Sent by Ptolemy…

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Origenes

(1,381 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ὠριγένης/ Ōrigénēs). [German version] [1] Platonic philosopher, 3rd cent. AD Platonic philosopher of the 3rd cent. AD, not to be confused with the homonymous Christian O. [2] [1. 17ff.; 2. 404ff.]. Along with Erennius and Plotinus, he was a pupil of Ammonius [9] Saccas. O. wrote two works: On Demons and The one creator is the king (Ὅτι μόνος ποιητὴς ὁ βασιλεύς, fr. 1 and 2 Weber) [3. 92, 336f.]. Proclus conserves numerous comments of O. on the style and content of the proem of Plato's Timaeus (fr. 8-16 Weber). Since O. did not write a commentary on that dialogue, these remark…

Timaeus

(1,738 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Τίμαιος; Tímaios). [German version] [1] Main speaker in Plato's [1] Timaeus T. of Locri [2] Epizephyrii in southern Italy (Τίμαιος Λοκρός/ Tímaios Lokrós), the main speaker in Plato's [1] Timaeus, was in Antiquity regarded as a Pythagorean [1.83-85]. The Suda s.v. T. (IV p. 553,26f. Adler) and the scholia to Pl. Tim. 20 A Greene report that he wrote on mathematical problems, on nature and on the life of Pythagoras [2] (μαθηματικά, περὶ φύσεως, περὶ τοῦ Πυθαγόρου βίου/ M athēmatiká, Perì phýseōs, Perì toû Pythagórou bíou) [1.85]. One treatise, in the Doric dialect [2.11-19], ent…

Demonology

(1,854 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Definition Demonology is the philosophical doctrine of the daímones ( Demons) ─ intermediate beings between gods and men ─ that the Platonic Academy first systematically developed subsequent to the problem posed by the Socratic daimónion (δαιμόνιον). Baltes, Matthias (Münster) [German version] B. Preplatonic It is not possible to reconstruct a systematic Pre-platonic demonology although later philosophers, e.g., Aetius (1,8,2), Aristoxenus (fr. 34), Aristotle (fr. 192 Rose) and Plutarch (De Is. et Os. 360e), believed th…

Dercylides

(180 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
[German version] (Δερκυλίδης; Derkylídēs) Philosopher from the 1st cent. BC [3. 180] or AD [4. 64]. Although nowhere described as a Platonist, he seems to have studied Plato's philosophy intensively, especially the mathematical and astronomical sections of his dialogues. Significant was his work of at least eleven volumes ‘On Plato's philosophy’, which was still being quoted by Porphyrius [1. 82ff., 296; 3. 60, 236]. The treatise ‘On the spindle and the whorl, treated in Plato's Politeia’, is perhaps part of that work [3. 44, 202f., 236]. Proclus transmits two comm…

Plutarchus

(7,856 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pelling, C. B. R. (Oxford) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Πλούταρχος/ Ploútarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1]. As the guest-friend of Meidias [2], the rich opponent of Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 21,110; 21,200), he turned to Athens for help in 349 BC when the exiled Cleitarchus [1] and Callias [9] of Chalcis, supported by Phalaecus of Phocis and Philippus [4] II, threatened his position (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with schol.). Phocion led the inglorious and expensive expedition in early 348 BC (Dem. Or. 5,5 with schol.; …

Longinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
Roman cognomen (greek Λογγῖνος; Longînos), derived from longus (‘tall’), in the Republican period in the family of the Cassii (Cassius [I 6-17; II 14-16]), in the Imperial period attested in numerous other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] Cassius Longinus Grammarian, Rhetor and platonic philosopher, c. AD 210-272/3 [German version] A. Life A Greek grammarian, rhetor and Platonic philosopher ( c. AD 210-272/3), who was an outstanding representative of the education and culture of his time and was therefore called a ‘living library and walking u…

Middle Platonism

(2,676 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
[German version] A. Definition Since K. Praechter, Middle Platonism has been the term for the period of ancient Platonism from the return of the Platonic Academy to dogmatism under Antiochus [20] of Ascalon (died 69 BC) until the beginning of Neoplatonism under Plotinus (died 270 AD; Dogmatists [1]; Neoplatonists). The term is modern, but the periodization is ancient in as far as the Neoplatonists themselves distinguished between the ‘old exegetes’ before Plotinus and the ‘new ones’ (Procl. in Pl. Ti. 1,218,2ff.; 2,104,17ff.; 212,12ff./213,8ff.; 3,234,9ff.; 245,19ff. Diehl; Hierocles in Phot. Bibl. cod. 251, 461a 30ff.; Simpl. in Aristot. Ph. 790,30f. Diels; cf. [1. 655f.; 2. 165 with note 1])…

Lucius [I]

(732 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
(Λούκιος; Loúkios) [German version] [1] L. Kathegetes Author of pharmacological texts, 1st cent. AD Author of pharmacological texts, active in the middle to the end of the 1st …

Gaius

(153 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
[German version] [I] (Γάϊος; Gáïos). Platonic philosopher of the early 2nd cent. AD. The physician  Galen studied with two of his students [3. 34f.]. No works are extant. His commentary on the myth of  Er [1. 18, 205] and his comments on Plato's dual teaching methods [1. 213; 2.98, 357ff.] were most likely part of (lost) lecture notes taken by his student  Albinus [1. 28, 182ff.]. He was held in high regard particularly by Plotinus, Porphyrius, and Priscian; Proclus saw him as one of the great autho…

Albinus

(861 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan)
Cognomen of the Clodii, Decii, Iunii, Lucceii, Mummii, Pescennii, Postumii (fictitious name in Mart. 4,37,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Of Smyrna. Platonic philosopher of the 2nd cent. AD (Ἀλβῖνος; Albînos) of Smyrna. Pl…

Demokritos

(1,579 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Δημόκριτος). [1] von Abdera Philosoph, Atomist, 2. H. 5. Jh. v. Chr. [English version] A. Leben und Schriften D. wirkte in der 2. H. des 5. Jh. und war einer der Hauptvertreter des antiken Atomismus, den er von Leukippos übernommen hatte. Die jeweiligen Beiträge der beiden Philosophen zur Atomtheorie sind nur schwer auseinanderzuhalten. Bezeichnend ist in diesem Zusammenhang, daß die im Verzeichnis von D.' Schriften (bei Diog. Laert. 9,45 = 68A33 DK) aufgelistete ‘Große Weltordnung’ …

Kelsos

(686 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
[English version] (Κέλσος). Platoniker, 2. H. des 2. Jh.n.Chr., Verf. der ‘Wahren Lehre (Ἀληθὴς λόγος, Alēthḗs lógos

Alkinoos

(386 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rom) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
(Ἀλκίνοος). [English version] [1] König der Phaiaken Oberster König der Phaiaken auf der sagenhaften Insel Scheria, die er als 13. mit 12 anderen Königen beherrscht (Hom. Od. 8,390). Nach Homer Sohn des Nausithoos, damit Enkel des Poseidon (Od. 7,56 ff.). Verheiratet mit seiner klugen Nichte Arete (Od. 7,65 ff.), mit der er 5 Söhne und die Tochter Nausikaa hat (Od. 6,15 ff., 62). Die Götter zeichnen A. durch ihr sichtbares Erscheinen (Od. 7,201 ff.) aus, Hephaistos schuf die goldenen Wachhunde des Pala…
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