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Telonai

(317 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τελῶναι/ telônai, Sg. τελώνης/ telṓnēs; 'tax leaseholders', from τέλη/ télē = 'taxes' and ὠνή/ ōnḗ = 'buying, lease'); private entrepreneurs or businesses in the Greek domain, comparable with the Roman publicani (see Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1,1,33). They either purchased for a lease guaranteed to the state, the right to collect taxes and tolls for a certain period in a defined area as well as the right to exploit mines, or they received a certain sum of money from the state and had to provide an agr…

Hellenic League

(343 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the league of c. 30 Greek states (31 in Plut. Themistocles 20,3; cf. Snake column) which swore an oath to unite against the Persians in the autumn of 481 BC, immediately prior to the attack of Xerxes [1] I and whose representatives ( próbouloi: Hdt. 7,172,1) met regularly in the sanctuary of Poseidon on the Isthmus of Corinth, beginning no later than the spring of 480. The first meeting took place in 481 in Sparta (Paus. 3,12,6), the leading Greek power of the time (cf. Thuc. 1,18,2), or on the Isthmus (Hdt. …

Blaesus

(87 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Common cognomen (‘the lisper’), e.g. in the gens Gellia, Naevia, Iunia, Pedia, Sallustia, Sentia, Sempronia. [German version] [1] Freund of Atedius Melior, Senator, died 90 AD Friend of Atedius Melior, probably a senator; died before AD 90 (Stat. 2,1,189ff.). A link with P. Sallustius Lucullus remains uncertain, cf. [1. 12f., 334ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Scheid, Collège. [German version] [2] Roman jurist Jurist, probably a student with  Labeo of Trebatius (cf. Dig. 33,2,31). Identification with Q. Iunius B. (cos. suff. AD 10) is questionable. Eder, Walter (Ber…

Quaesitor

(127 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ('examiner') can, in general Latin usage, mean any chairman of a jury ( quaestio ) in criminal proceedings; however, the chairman selected for an individual trial is usually meant, in contrast to the permanent chairman appointed for a year ( praetor, iudex quaestionis) [1, vol. 2. 2234; 2. 48-50]. He also did not have a vote [2. 1629] and was bound by the decision of the committee which he led. A juristic connection of the quaesitor to the ancient quaestores parricidii ( parricidium ) is disputed, but accepted by [2. 44 f., 132], who sees i…

Rome

(21,607 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Jongman, Willem (Groningen) | Heinzelmann, Michael (Rome)
This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Caesar | Umbri, Umbria | Christianity | Villanova Culture | Wine | | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Celts | Latini, Latium | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Pertinax | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Batavian Revolt (Ῥώμη/ Rhṓmē; Lat. imperium Romanum). I. History [German version] A. General remarks The history of Rome, which according to Roman tradition began with its foundation in 753 BC…

Puer, pueri

(274 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Latin puer is used: (1) to describe male slaves of any age (like the Greek παῖς/ paîs); (2) to distinguish a free male child from a female one ( puella); and (3) to indicate a stage of life (Dig. 50,16,204). According to Festus (307), 'the ancients' ( antiqui) named their slaves Marcipor, Quintipor, etc., to express the master-slave relationship of Marcus or Quintus to each por = puer. A slave remained a puer until freed because his physical development, unlike that of a free child, would not lead to legal majority (Sen. Ep. 47,7). Latin lacks a ter…

Amalaricus

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Alaricus [3] II and a daughter of Theoderic the Great. After Alaricus' death (507), his half-brother Gesalech ruled instead of the c. five-year-old A. (Gesalicus; Procop. Goth. 5,12,43; differently Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,37). After 511 Theoderic took over rulership for A., who had been nominally named king (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46; Iord. Get. 302 names Theudis as regent) until after Theoderic's death in 526 when A. took up full rulership (Procop. Goth. 5,13,4 ff.). He married a daughter of the Frank C…

Ardabur

(456 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius, cos. 427 AD Flavius, of Alan descent, father of Aspar A. Consul in AD 427. As magister utriusque militiae, he led a successful campaign against the Persian commander Narses in AD 421-422. In AD 424, he was, as magister utriusque mil. (praesentalis?), sent to Italy by Theodosius II, together with his son, against the usurper Iohannes who had seized power after the death of Honorius in AD 423; however, he was already captured during the crossing and held in Ravenna as Iohannes' prisoner, but freed by his son in AD 425 (PLRE 2, 137 f., A. 3). Eder, Walter (Berlin) …

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Alaricus

(1,033 words)

Author(s): Schwarcz, Andreas (Vienna) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] (Alarich). Mid 4th cent. AD, King of the Erulians (Alarich). Mid 4th cent. AD, King of the Erulians who resided on the Sea of Asov according to  Ablabius [3] quoted by Iordanes ( iuxta Maeotidas Paludes habitans). They were defeated by the Greuthungi king  Ermanaricus, partially destroyed, the rest of them subjugated. Nothing more is known about the personal destiny of A. (Iord. Get. 117-119). Schwarcz, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 31990, 44, 97, 150. [German version] [2] I Gothic king, AD 391-410 A. I, from the Balthi family (Iord. Get…

B (Number)

(56 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Greek numerical systems, β (beta) designates the number 2 in the ‘alphabetic’ system. In the same system, it can also designate the number 2,000 when prepositioned with a diacritical symbol ('β, ,β). In the ‘acrophonic’ system, β' is the symbol for the fraction 2/3.  Arithmetics;  Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Pergamum

(5,864 words)

Author(s): Radt, Wolfgang (Istanbul) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Oracles | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Πέργαμον, ἡ Πέργαμος; Pérgamon, hē Pérgamos). [German version] I. Location City in Mysia, modern Bergama (at the foot of the ancient acropolis, partially on the remains of P.), in western Turkey, 110 km north of İzmir, c. 30 km from the coast at the edge of the plain of the Caïcus [1], modern Bakır Cayı. The ancient settlement was located on a 300-m high mountain ridge, surro…

Tullia

(610 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4], the son-in-law of Tarquinius [11] Priscus, she was married to her uncle Arruns. Having failed in her attempts to talk Arruns into assuming rulership, T. turned towards Arruns' brother Tarquinius (the later Tarquinius [12] Superbus), husband of her sister of the same name. After the death of Arruns and of her sister (by murder?; Liv. 1,46,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,30,1), T. married Tarquini…

Census

(641 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The ancient census had its origins in the effort to establish the military potential of a community, and was thus at first restricted to the part of the population that was capable of and qualified for military service, i.e. adult male citizens. Because the prevailing principle of self-provision of equipment made military service as cavalryman, heavy infantryman ( hoplitai ), light infantryman or military auxiliary dependent on the citizen's economic standing, a classification according to wealth was made by estimation ( census ; cf. time ), int…

Polybius

(3,367 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Moritz, Anja (Potsdam)
(Πολύβιος; Polýbios). [German version] [1] (Physician) see Polybus [6] Physician, see Polybus [6] Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Greek historian, 3rd/2nd. cent. BC Greek historian. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life Son of Lycortas, the leading statesman of the Achaean League (Achaea with map), from Megalopolis. He was born before 199 BC (as hípparchos, i.e. holder of the second highest office within the Achaean League in 169 BC, he must have been at least 30 years old), died in around 120 BC (according to Ps.-Lucian.…

Zilath

(206 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (also zilat, zilach, zilac). Name of an office in Etruscan cities, known from inscriptional evidence from the 4th cent. BC onwards; most of the evidence is from the territory of Tarquinii, more from Vulci, Volsinii, Volaterra and Clusium [1. 246 f.]. The zilath seems (to some extent with other officials also described as zilath but charged with other duties) to have been at the apex of the city administration which evolved after the dissolution of the kingdom and the decline of aristocratic power in Etruria (Etrusci). Zilath also appears in connection with mechl rasnal…

Attila

(394 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Mundzuk, from AD 434 together with his brother Bleda king of the Huns as successor to his uncle Rua. After the murder of Bleda in 445, A. is until 453 sole ruler of a Hun empire reaching from the Rhine to the Caucasus, which also includes Iranian and Germanic tribes. The strict central organization of the Hunnish tribes, begun already by Rua, increasingly replaces the earlier, looser federation. Probably after the model of the Roman Empire but not with the goal of its destr…

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Civil War

(927 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Already in Hdt. Greek ἔμφυλος στάσις/ émphylos stásis; πόλεμος/ pólemos; Latin bellum civile). Fight between armed citizens of the same state on its territory, which could be particularly fierce in Graeco-Roman antiquity given that ‘citizens’ and ‘soldiers’ were identical and therefore battle-experienced troops encountered each other. The causes lay in social conflicts, political differences or the power aspirations of individuals. Because the boundaries of civil wars are undefined, differentiation from ‘revolts’ and ‘uprisings’ is difficult. [German version] I. Greece Th…

Acropolis

(374 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (ἀκρόπολις/ akrópolis, 'upper city'), the highest part ( ákros = 'located at the top') of a Greek settlement, in Greece and in the Aegean area often with fortification walls, rarely so in the colonies of Sicily and Lower Italy (Fortifications). The original reference to these elevated settlements as pólis (on the Mycenaean roots of the word s. Polis I) was preserved in the designation of the Acropolis of Athens as pólis up into the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,15,6; cf. Aristoph. Nub. 69; Paus. 1,26,6). When settlements began to extend down the slopes begi…
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