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Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Nicotera

(51 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Station on the via Popilia in Bruttium (It. Ant. 106,2; 111,3: 18 miles south of Vibo Valentia), modern Nicótera. Probably not identical with Emporiom, the harbour of Medma (Str. 6,1,5). Iron Age, Greek and Roman finds, Latin inscriptions. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography Nissen 2, 959f.  BTCGI 12, 336-338.

Hydruntum

(510 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Bronze Age until Imperial Period A harbour town on the Iapygian coast (supposed to have been founded by Cretans, Steph. Byz. s.v. Βίεννος), c. 70 km south of  Brundisium in the area between Adriatic and Ionian Sea (Liv. 36,21,5; Plin. HN 3,100; CIL X 1795; Ps.-Scyl. 14; 27; Str. 6,3,4), where the crossing to Greece is the shortest (Plin. HN 3,100f.; cf. Cic. Att. 15,21,3; but Luc. 5,375: avius Hydrus [1]), modern Otranto. H. played an important role in the Bronze (Mycenaean finds) [2; 3] and Iron Age (settlement remains of the 9th/8th cents. BC,…

Sinus Terinaeus

(72 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Τεριναῖος κόλπος; Terinaîos kólpos). Bay named after the port of Terina on the Tyrrhenian coast of Bruttium (Thuc. 6,104,2; Plin. HN 3,72; 95), modern Golfo di Santa Eufemia. Possibly identical [1] with the Kólpos Napētínos (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 3; 5), Lamētikós (Aristot. Pol. 1329b) or Hippōniátēs (Str. 6,1,4). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 G. De Sensi Sestito, Tra l'Amato e il Savuto, vol. 1, 1999, 63-68, 214, 227-229.

Neaethus

(177 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Νέαιθος/ Néaithos), Strab. 6,1,12; Ναύαιθος/ Naúaithos, Apollodorus FHG 1,180 fr. 3, from νε- or ναυ- + αἴθω - but cf. [6]). River in Bruttium to the north of Croton (Plin. HN 3,97), rising in the Sila mountains, modern Neto. Allegedly so called because it was there that the captured Trojan women burnt the Achaeans' ships  (Lycophr. 921 with schol.; Str. 6,1,12: hence many Achaean settlements on the N.; schol. Theocr. 4,24; Euphorion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀσκανία; Suda s.v. Ναίεθος; Et…

Medma

(234 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Μέδμα; Médma). Locrian colony (Thuc. 5,5,3; Scymn. 308; Str. 6,1,5; EM 581,15) founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC and located on the west coast of Italy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 81; Μέσμα/ Mésma, Scyl. 12; Plin. HN 3,73), near the eponymous spring and south of the eponymous river (the modern Mesima) [1; 4. 114ff.], with its own emporium, the modern Rosarno. At the turn of the 6th/5th cents., it was victoriously allied with Hipponium and Locri against Croton, and in 422 with Hipponium against Locri (Thuc. 5,5,3).…

Baletium

(100 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Messapian town, c. 17 km south-east of Brindisi, today Valesio. Baleθas/Faleθas on silver coins (4th or 5th cent. BC) [1. 226-235]. B. in Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Balesium in Plin. HN 3,101, Valetium in Mela 2,66, Balentium in the Tab. Peut. 7,2, Valentiam in the It. Burd. 609,8. Archaeological remains from Messapian and Roman periods (until the 5th cent. AD) [2; 3] have been found. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. Siciliano, Le zecche della Messapia, in: Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi sulla Magna Grecia 30, 1991, 224-254 2 J. S. Boersma, D. G. Yntema, V…

Valet(i)um

(38 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Community in the north of Brundisium (also Carbinium): Guido, Geographia 27; 71, modern Carovigno; inscriptions and remains from the Messapian period (8th-2nd cents. BC). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography M. Lombardo, I Messapi e la Messapia, 1992, 222-224.

Lupiae

(128 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Messapian-Roman city in Calabria between Brundisium and Hydruntum (It. Ant. 118,3; Luppia, Tab. Peut. 7,1) with a harbour on the Adriatic built under the emperor Hadrian (Paus. 6,19,9; Ptol. 3,1,12; Mela 2,4; Str. 6,3,6). Roman municipium in the 2nd Augustan region (Plin. HN 3,101); modern Lecce. Messapian and Latin inscriptions. Remains: walls and tombs (4th-2nd cents. BC), Roman theatre and amphitheatre (cf. Guido, Cosmographia 28). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1BTCGI 8, 1990, 520-522 2 L. Giardino, P…

Mataurus

(150 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars (Μέταυρος; Métauros). River (Plin. HN 3,73), modern Petrace, and town ( Taurianum, Mela 2,68; Geogr. Rav. 4,36) in Bruttium ( Bruttii) on the Tyrrhenian Sea, founded by Zancle (Solin. 2,11) or Locri (Steph. Byz., s.v. Μ.). Home of the poet Stesichorus (Steph. Byz.; Suda s.v. Στησίχορος) [2], modern Gioia Tauro. Archaeological remains of a necropolis (archaic and Imperial periods) in Contrada Pietra [1; 4]; architectural terracotta finds from the archaic period [4]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. De F…
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