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Calabri, Calabria

(636 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] A. Definition South-eastern extension of the Italian peninsula (Str. 6,3,1: its name possibly of indigenous origin; [1; 2. 32], for different view [5]), modern Salento. Καλαβρία ( Kalabría) is first attested for Rhinto (Hsch. s.v. K.), c. 300 BC; according to Str. 6,3,5, most authors used Kalabría synonymously with Ἰαπυγία ( Iapygía), Μεσσαπία ( Messapía) and Σαλεντίνη ( Salentínē) for the peninsula south of the isthmus of Tarentum -- Brundisium. The earliest mention of the tribe of that region as Καλαβροί ( Kalaboí) in Pol. 10.1; in Roman triumphs (of 280, 2…

Ancona

(260 words)

Author(s): Paci, Gianfranco (Macerata) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Umbri, Umbria | | Coloniae | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones Seaport in Picenum, named after its location in an elbow-shaped bay (Mela 2,64). Occupied from the Mycenaean period, a colony was founded there by  Syracusae in the 4th cent. BC (remains of walls and of a temple of Aphrodite on the acropolis; cf. Plin. HN 3,111). From the 2nd cent. BC, it was a Roman naval base. In 42 BC, it became a Roman colonia with   duoviri . Of the Roman town, the amphitheatre, public thermae, several   domus

Dioscorus

(318 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Διόσκορος; Dióskoros). [German version] [1] Patriarch of Alexandria Patriarch of Alexandria (444-451). In terms of ecclesiastical politics, he aimed to achieve the highest standing for his patriarchy and in terms of theology he promoted the teaching of the pre-eminence of the divine nature of Christ (moderate  Monophysitism). When the radical Monophysite  Eutyches was sentenced in 448, D. too…

Barium

(275 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Rome | Rome (Βάρις; Báris). Peucetian harbour town (Βάριον, Atbaris: schol. Hor. Sat. 1,5,97; Beroes: It. Burd. 609,15; cf. Liv. 40,18; Str. 5,3,8), founded by Illyrians (Plin. HN 3,102) or by emigrants from Barra (Fest. s.v.), at the junction of the via Traiana and the coastal road (Hor. Sat. 1,5,96-97), modern Bari. Flourished between the 6th and 4th cents. BC (cf. the rich necropolis outside the town to the south, close to the coast). Municipium of the tribus Claudia (inscriptions: IG XIV 687; C…

Brundisium

(411 words)

Author(s): Camassa, Giorgio (Udine) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones (Βρενδέσιον, Βρεντήσιον; Brendésion, Brentḗsion, modern Brindisi). Important Iapygian-Messapian harbour town (Hdt. 4,99) in agro Sallentino (Liv. per. 19), eastern terminus of the via Appia (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,5). [German version] A. Greek and Roman period Ancient historians assumed a connection between the name of the town and the Messapian βρένδον, ( bréndon, ‘deer’) or βρέντιον ( bréntion, ‘deer's head’), based on…

Caucasus

(194 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Καυκάσιον ὄρος; Kaukásion óros, Hdt. 3,97; Καύκασον ὄρος; Kaúkason óros, App. praef. 4, App. Mith. 103; καυκάσια ὄρη, Str. 11,2,1; Caucasii/Caucasei montes, Plin. HN 5,98; 6,47; Mela 1,15; 1,19; Geogr. Rav. 2,20). First mentioned at Aesch. PV 422; 719 (πόλισμα καυκάσου, καύκασον); the name has been retained until today. High mountain range (1,100 km long, up to 60 km wide) between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that separated the world of the northern steppe peoples (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alania…

Chalcidice

(493 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Χαλκιδική; Chalkidikḗ). The name C., used today for the entire peninsula with its three extended fingers, in antiquity referred only to the area occupied by the Chalcidians on Sithonia and its hinterland, which they probably settled before the great period of Greek colonization (middle of the 8th cent. BC). The coastal towns are first mentioned by name at the time of Xerxes' march, and later, together with inland towns, as members of the Athenian League. In 432 the majority secede…

Byzantine Studies

(3,027 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Effenberger, Arne (Berlin)
Makris, Georgios (Bochum) [German version] A. From 1453 to the 18th Cent. (CT) Soon after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman advance stimulated interest among the scholars of Central Europe in Byzantine historians as a source of the history of the Turks. Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) had published historical works by Niketas Choniates and Nikephoros Gregoras with precisely this aspect in mind; he was also the first to recognise the intrinsic value of the Byzantine world, fixing its conventional ra…

Dorylaeum

(483 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Zenobia | | Hellenistic states | Pompeius | Patricius (Δορύλαιον , Δορύλλειον; Dorýlaion, Dorýlleion). Important city in the north of Phrygia (modern Eskişehir) between the river Tembris (Porsuk Çayı) and its tributary Bathys (called Hermus by Plin. HN 5,119; modern Sarısu). The ancient site is located on a hill (Şarhüyük, ‘Hill of the city’), that was inhabited already in the Hittite and Phrygian period (currently Turkish excavations); founded anew as a Greek city by…

Agapetus

(269 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Lippold, A. (0)
[German version] [1] Deacon of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Deacon of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, author of a speculum regum containing 72 acrostically arranged aphorisms for Justinian I (527-565). A. grants the Christian element an influential position in respect of the topic of the pagan ideology of the caesars; the ruler must above all else be a loyal servant and emulator of God. His main source was the paraenetic second speech of Isocrates to Nicocles. This short, naive text had a great influence on the speculum regum literature of the Greek Middle Ages and in the easte…

Constantinople

(1,725 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
( Constantinopolis). [German version] I. Site Imperial residence, founded in 324 by  Constantine [1] the Great on the site of  Byzantium. Bounded to the north by the Golden Horn, with the  Bosporus [1] to the east and the  Hellespont to the south, the city could only be attacked from one side by land. By virtue of its site it dominated trade and commerce between Europe and Asia, between the Aegean and the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos; Hdn. 3,1,5; Pol. 4,38-45). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] II. Topography The city plan did not follow the customary imperial…

Chersonesus

(1,017 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
(Χερσόνησος; Chersónēsos). [German version] [1] Modern Peninsula Gallipoli The peninsula nowadays called Gallipoli (more than 900 km2); traces of prehistoric settlement, a strategically favourable position, and fertile. First mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,844f., as homeland of the Thracians Acamas and Peirous. Aeolian colonization in the 7th cent. BC (Alopekonnesos, Madytus, Sestus); Ionian (Cardia, Limnae by Miletus and Clazomenae, Elaeus by Teos) somewhat later. The powerful Thracian tribes (Apsinthi, Dolonci) lon…

Archontes

(1,619 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] [I] Office (ἄρχοντες, ἄρχων; árchontes, árchōn). In general, the term applied to all holders of   archai . However, the term was frequently used as the title of a particular office, originally, at least, the highest office of the state. Archontes in this sense of the term are found in most states of central Greece, including Athens, and states dependent on or influenced by Athens. According to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3, the kings were initially replaced by archons who were initially elected for life, later for a period of ten years, and finally for …

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…
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