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Garsyeris

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Γαρσύηρις; Garsýeris, because of -υηρις/υερις late Hittite-Luwian? [1. 669]). As a cast-out officer of Achaeus [5], he advised the latter in 221/0 BC to secede from Antiochus III. In the dispute of the Pisidian towns Pednelissus and Selge in 218, he intervened against Pednelissus together with several other towns of the region, but without the help of Side. Together with Achaeus he forced Selge to accept a peace and pay money (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-…

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's …

Seleucids

(254 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] The kings who are most often referred to as Seleucids are Antiochus [2-14] and Seleucus [2-8], less often, Demetrius [I7-9] and Philippus [24-25]. The Seleucids, who were frequently related by marriage to other royal families, were the descendents of Seleucus [2], the founder of the Macedonian kingdom and dynasty in Asia Minor, the Middle East and Central Asia; they ruled over the largest kingdom (a maximum of c. 3,500,000 km2 ) of those that emerged after Alexander [4] the Great's death  (Diadochi; Wars of the Diadochi).  The size and strength of the very hetero…

Zeuxis

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Ζεῦξις/ Zeûxis). [German version] [1] Greek painter and sculptor, c. 435/25-390 BC Greek painter and sculptor, active between c. 435/25 and 390 BC. He was one of the pioneers of the great era of Greek painting which would retain its high standards for over a century. 'Heraclea', which Plin. HN 35,61 gives as his place of origin, seems more likely to be the Sicilian Heraclea [9] Minoa ([1. 382]; but [2]: Heraclea [7] Pontica?) than Heraclea [10] in Lucania [3. 60], since Z. was the pupil of an otherwise unknown ma…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Nicarchus

(380 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος; Níkarchos). [German version] [1] General of Antiochus III, 218 BC Active at the beginning of the Fourth  Syrian War as one of  Antiochus  [5] III's generals. In 218 BC he took part in Antiochus advance into southern Syria at the occupation of the narrows on the River  …

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian kin…

Bacchides

(63 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Βακχίδης; Bakchídēs). ‘Friend’ of the Seleucid Antiochus IV, who gover…

Asiarchy

(266 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] Provincial office, exercized by members of the regional elite, extending back to the Roman Republican period, well attested in the Imperial period by literary, numismatic and especially epigraphic evidence [1. 1601ff. and 1604ff., supplemented by 2. 42 A.3 and 3. 112ff.]. The ‘provincial council’ ( Koinon) of Asia was active for the province from 29 BC in the cult of Roma and Augustus and generally in the  ruler cult. After 26 there were several towns with temples of the provincial Imperial cult in Asia and several ‘high priests (archiereís) of Asia’ attached to them. The asiarchy was defined as an ethnic priestly office, i.e. under Roman rule an office of the province, not the town. One of the duties of the asiarch was the organization of games. The high priest's office and the asiarchy were allotted annually; several existed simultaneously in Asia and, each related to the temple of the Imperial cult in a specific city. The wife of the asiarch was often referred to as the ‘high priestess’. Because of these factors, the identificat…

Hegias

(473 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ἡγίας; Hēgías). [German version] [1] Sculptor, c. 490-480 BC Sculptor who signed the base of a lost bronze statue on the Acropolis in Athens that must be dated around 490-480 BC. He is mentioned by Pausanias (8,42,10), Pliny (HN 34,49) and Dio Chrysostom (55,1) as a late archaic artist, a contemporary of  Critius and Nesiotes,  Onatas,…

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the compani…

Neolaus

(90 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Νεώλαος; Neṓlaos). N. took part in the uprising of his brothers Molon [1] and Alexander against Antiochus [5] III. In Molon's battle of 220 BC against Antiochus, M. commanded the left wing of the army, which defected to the king, determining both the result of the battle and the fate of the insurrection. N. fled to Alexander in the Persis, killing their mother, Molon's children and himself (Pol. 5,53,11-54,5). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 H.H. Schmitt, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos' des Großen, 1964, 143ff. 2 Will, vol. 2, 17ff.

Polyxenidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Πολυξενίδας/ Polyxenídas). Banished Rhodian (Liv. 37,10,1; App. Syr. 21,97), general and admiral under Antiochus [5] III, in 209 BC led Cretan auxiliary troops against the Parthian king Arsaces [2] II (Pol. 10,29,6). In the war against Rome he was beaten at Corycus in 191, destroyed the Rhodian fleet under Pausistratus at Samian Panormus in 190 (Liv. 37,8-11) and after a success against the Romans lost half his fleet at Myonnesus (Liv. 36,41-45; 37,27-30; App. Syr. 22,103-109; 24,114-120; 27, 132-136). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)

Antipater

(2,083 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Macedonian commander (320-319 BC) Son of Iolaus,  399/398 BC, was certainly already active militarily and diplomatically under  Philippus and under his father  Amyntas and brothers. He was especially connected with  Alexander [4] and secured his throne after the murder of Philippus. During Alexander's invasion in Asia he remained with half of the Macedonian army as governor of Europe. He monitored Greece and sent mercenaries and Macedonian contingents during the first year of the …

Arabarches

(420 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀραβάρχης; Arabárchēs) [German version] [1] Office in roman Egypt Office in Roman Egypt, attested as from 2nd cent. AD (OGIS 202), but it may have had Ptolemaic models. A college of arabarchai was responsible for levying the import tax in Coptus in the mid 2nd cent. (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). The distribution of tasks is unclear with the παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης ( paralḗmptēs tês Erýthras thalássēs), however, OGIS 202 indicates the offices were operating in parallel. The arabarches was also responsible for collecting the road taxes on the road from Coptus to …

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Diognetus

(335 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Διόγνητος; Diógnētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, victor at the Dionysia in 415 BC Athenian, son of Niceratus, from Cyantidae; brother of Nicias and Eucrates [2], father of Diomnestus. Winner at the Dionysia in 415 BC (Pl. Grg. 472a), afterwards exiled; in Athens in 404-03. Intervened in 403 with Pausanias on behalf of Nicias' sons. Died c. 396 (Lys. 18,4; 9f.; 21; And. 1,47). Perhaps identical with the person named by Traill (PAA 327535, 327540). Traill, PAA 327820; Davies 10808. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) [German version] [2] Nauarch of Antiochus III c. 220 BC As nauarch of An…

Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…
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