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Theognis

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Θέογνις/ Théognis). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] I. Life and textual history T. was born in Megara [2] in Greece (Didymus in schol. Plat. leg. 630a), hardly Megara [3] in Sicily (Suda Θ 136 and probably Plat. l.c.,), ca. 544-1 BC (Suda l.c.; acc. to [17] 65-71 ca. 630-600). Plat. l.c. (citing El. 77-8) and Isoc. Or. 3,42-3 first name T. as a good adviser, and according to Stob. 4,29,53 Xen. wrote On Theognis and cited El. 22-3 and 183-190. T.'s poems were probably sung at 5th and 4th cent. B…

Tyrtaeus

(621 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Τυρταῖος; Tyrtaîos). Spartan elegist and aulete, c. 640 BC (Suda s.v. Τυρταῖος, 1205; cf. T.' dating of Theopompus [1] to two generations before his own day, 5 W). The (probably Hellenistic) edition of his poems in 5 vols. (Suda loc.cit.) contains (1) martial exhortatory elegies, (2) the Eunomía and (3) war songs. (1) The battle exhortations (ὑποθῆκαι/ hypothêkai, Suda loc.cit.) urged the Spartans (always in the pl.) to courageous action against the enemy (Messenians: 23 W; Arcadians and Argives: 23a W). Honour in victory or death wa…

Echembrotus

(74 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Eχέμβροτος; Echémbrotos) Arcadian aulode and elegist. Paus. 10,7,5-6 reports about his victory in the aulode competition during the newly arranged Pythian Games in 586 BC and quotes his verse(?) epigram on a tripod in Thebes dedicated to Hercules. His description as a singer of μέλεα καὶ ἐλέγους is the earliest record of the term élegoi. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2, 62 M. L. West, Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus, 1974.

Tettix

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(Τέττιξ, lit. “cicada”). [German version] [1] Founder of a city at the entrance to Hades A Cretan said to have founded a city on the Taenarum near the supposed entrance to Hades: there the man who killed Archilochus in battle, Callondas, nicknamed Corax, was sent by Delphi to placate Archilochus' ghost (Plut. De sera 17.615E, whence Suda α 4112, probably via Ael. (fr. 80)). The hypothesis of [1] that Archilochus called himself T. remains unproven, in spite of Lucian, Pseudol. 1 and Archil. fr. 223  West. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 Göber, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 1111. [German version] [2…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Apsines

(151 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀψίνης; Apsínēs) Valerius [1] A., sophist from Gadara, pupil of the sophist Heracleides and of Basilicus, a teacher of Gaianus, rival of Fronto of Emesa in Athens during the reign of Maximinus, where he was granted the ornamenta consularia (Suda α 4735 Adler). Father of the sophist Onasimus (Suda α 4734, 4736), friend of Philostratus (Philostr. VS 2,33). The works ζητήματα and a Demosthenes commentary (Maximus Planudes 5,517 Walz) have been lost; a corrupt work περὶ τῶν ἐσχηματισμένων προβλημάτων follows a revision o…

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Scopelianus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκοπελιανός; Skopelianós). Sophist from Clazomenae, active c. 80-115 AD. According to Philostr. VS 1,21,514, our only source, S. was taught by Nicetes [2], presumably in Smyrna where S. too taught (his pupils included Polemon) and declaimed. Renowned especially for subjects drawn from the Persian Wars, S. had a vigorous style (apparent also in his epic Γιγαντία ( Gigantía), criticised as 'dithyrambic'. Like his ancestors he was high priest of the province of Asia (ἀρχιερεύς/ archiereús). Often an envoy to emperors, c. 92 AD he successfully opposed Domitian's…

Scythinus

(124 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκυθῖνος; Skythînos). iambic poet from Teos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τέως), perhaps 5th or 4th century B.C. S. composed a poem expounding Heraclitus' [1] philosophy (cited in Diog. Laert. 9,16 = fr. 46 Wehrli), perhaps entitled On Nature (περὶ φύσεως), as in the lemma of Stob. 1,8,43 citing fr. 2 W. on 'time', either in prose or in corrupted trochaic tetrameters [1], the metre of S.' two lines about Apollo's lyre cited Plut. de Pyth. or. 16,402a. Ath. 11,461e cites an account of Herakles' conquests from an apparently prose ‘ historía’ (FGrH 13 F 1). Iambographers  Bowie, Ewen (O…

Athenaeus

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος; Athēnaîos). [German version] [1] Lacedaemonian, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens Lacedaemonian, son of Periclidas, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens (Thuc. 4,119), which he officially announced to  Brasidas a little later together with the Athenian Aristonymus (Thuc. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Attalus I of Pergamum, member of the 'Royal Council' A. was, as the youngest son of Attalus I of Pergamum, a member of the ‘Royal Council’; he is also documented as an agonothete (Alt. Perg. 8,3,…

Zenothemis

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ζηνόθεμις; Zēnóthemis). Elegiac poet, probably from the late 4th or early 3rd cent. BC. The only surviving fragment is an elegiac distichon from a Periplous which names the Issedones and the Arismaspi as neighbours (SH 855, quoted by Tzetz. Chil. 7,765f.). This poem is probably also the source of references to Hyperboreans (ibid. 7, 642-671 = SH 856), Amazones in Ethiopia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,963-965c = SH 857), and fish in a Paeonic lake that are fed alive to cattle (Ael. NA 17,30…

Herodes

(2,828 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἡρῴδης; Hērṓidēs). [German version] [1] H. I.; Herod the Great. Born in c. 73 BC, son of  Antipater [4] and the Arabian woman Cyprus. In 47 appointed strategos of Galilaea, he came into conflict with the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem because of the execution on his own authority of persons involved in a revolt. The Roman governor of Syria Sex.  Iulius [I 11] Caesar made him the strategos of Coilesyria and Samaria. In 43 he proved himself to be indispensable to one of the murderers of Caesar, C.  Cassius [I 10], in the exploitation of the land, likewise in 41 after …

Antipater

(2,083 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Macedonian commander (320-319 BC) Son of Iolaus,  399/398 BC, was certainly already active militarily and diplomatically under  Philippus and under his father  Amyntas and brothers. He was especially connected with  Alexander [4] and secured his throne after the murder of Philippus. During Alexander's invasion in Asia he remained with half of the Macedonian army as governor of Europe. He monitored Greece and sent mercenaries and Macedonian contingents during the first year of the …

Callinus

(432 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Καλλῖνος; Kallînos). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet Elegiac poet from Ephesus, c. 650 BC. His only long fr. (21 verses, 1 W./G.-P., from Stobaeus) urges young men ( néoi), presumably symposiasts, to defend their city. The enemy were perhaps the Cimmerians -- they are mentioned in a hexameter in 5(a) W./G.-P., which was adduced by Str. 14,1,40 (cf. 13,4,8) as evidence for a Cimmerian invasion that led to the capture of Sardes (thus c. 652 BC). This invasion had taken place earlier than that of the Trerians (also in 4 W./G.-P.), which destroyed Magnesia. In theme, …

Phocylides

(409 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φωκυλίδης/ Phōkylídēs). [German version] [1] Poet from Miletus, c. 540 BC Greek poet from Miletus (Phryn. 336, p. 463 R.; Suda) who wrote hexameters and elegiac gnomai (gnome; elegiac: Athen. 632d; both: Suda φ 643), c. 540 BC (Suda). The Γνῶμαι/ Gnômai, aphorisms, are ascribed to P. by many authors (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Strabo, Dion [I 3] Chrysostomus, Athenaeus, Clement of Alexandria). They begin (as do those of Demodocus [2] of Lerus) with καὶ τόδε Φωκυλίδου/ kai tóde Phōkulídou, 'P. says this, too'). They are written in hexameters (from one to eight verses…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Semonides of Amorgos

(576 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σημωνίδης/ Sēmōnídēs: Choiroboskos in Etym. M. 713,17; most citations spell Σιμωνίδης/ Simōnídēs). One of the earliest known composers of iambic poetry (Iambographers) of the 7th cent. The dating of Cyrillus (Contra Iulianum 1,14) to 664-611 BC is to be preferred (cf. Archilochus) to that of the Suda σ 446 to 490 years after the Trojan War, i.e. 693 BC (cf. the information wrongly transmitted under Simmias σ 431). According to the Suda σ 431 he led colonists from Samos to found Minoa, Aigialos and Arkesine in Amorgos. S. wrote Íamboi and an 'Early History' (Ἀρχαιολογία/ Ar…

Clonas

(84 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλονᾶς; Klonâs). Poet and musician who is claimed to be from both Tegea and Thebes; possibly early 7th cent. BC, as he is classified between  Terpander and  Archilochus (Ps.-Plut. De musica 1133a). Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 157 Wehrli = Ps.-Plut. ibid. 1131f-1132c, cf. Poll. 4,79) credits him with elegiac poems and hexameters as well as with having introduced nómoi for vocal music (αὐλῴδια/ aulṓidia) accompanied on the aulós, and processional songs (προσόδια/ prosódia). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 333-334.

Mimnermus

(760 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μίμνερμος; Mímnermos) of Colophon or Smyrna, 2nd half of the 7th century BC. One of the earliest writers of Greek elegy. In antiquity, he was viewed, along with Callinus [1] and Archilochus as its possible ‘inventor’. The Suda dates M. to the 37th Olympiad (632-629 BC), but the opinion of scholars is divided: that M. was still living around 600 cannot be proved by citing Solon (20 W., purporting to be a reply to M.) ( contra [7]); praise of a victor from an earlier generation over the Lydians (14 W.), as well as a poem about a battle against Gyges [1] (P…
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