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(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Nature, Natural philosophy

(3,656 words)

Author(s): Brisson, Luc (Paris)
I. Greece [German version] A. Terminology In ancient Greek, the term phýsis (φύσις, ‘nature’) is a nomen actionis derived from the root * bhu- (which probably implies the idea of coming into being, growth and development). It first of all denotes the state that results from the spontaneous development of a living being: hence the meanings of ‘size’, ‘stature’, or ‘appearance’, all of which point towards the more general meaning of ‘innate bodily characteristics’. Phýsis is thus opposed to téchnē (τέχνη, art), which refers to any competence acquired in various domains of human activity. P…


(620 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος). [English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker Griech. Grammatiker (vielleicht 4./5. Jh. n. Chr. [3. 31]); Verf. eines Komm. zu Kallimachos' [3] ‘Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), dessen Gebrauch sich noch in der Suda feststellen läßt [4. 13-18]. Die Zuschreibung einer Ed. der Hymnen des Kallimachos [5. 78] sowie der Hypotheseis zu Sophokles' ‘Antigone und ‘Oidipus in Kolonos [6. 17-20] ist wahrscheinlich. Wohl mit dem von Stephanos von Byzanz s. v. Ἄζιλις erwähnten S. identisch. Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) Bibliography Ed.: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, …


(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Poliorketes twice illegally appointed him (in 294/3 and 293/2) as eponymous árchōn (Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 and SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 No. 9]; cf. in general Plut. Demetrius 34), O., when Athens seceded from Demetrius in 2…


(244 words)

Author(s): Brisson, Luc (Paris)
[German version] (Νεμέσιος/ Nemésios). Bishop of Emesa (present-day Homs) in Syria, possibly identical with the governor of Cappadocia, to whom in AD 385 Gregorius [3] of Nazianzus sent three letters and a poem inviting him to convert to Christianity. Around 400 Nemesius wrote his work ‘On the Nature of Mankind (Περὶ φύσεως ἀνθρώπου/ Perì phúseōs anthrṓpou), in which for the first time he describes anthropology from an explicitly Christian viewpoint. The title is borrowed from a Hippocratic text; the work itself appears to have remained uncompleted…


(121 words)

Author(s): Brisson, Luc (Paris)
[German version] (Θεοσέβιος; Theosébios). Neo-Platonic philosopher of the 5th cent. AD, known only through Damascius. According to the latter's Life of Isidorus (Phot. 56-59 and fr. 109-110 Zintzen = 45 A, B; 46 B, D, E Athanassiadi) T. published notes he took at two of Hierocles' [7] lectures in Alexandria [1] commenting on Plato's Gorgias. T. was allegedly able to expel demons by exorcism. When his marriage remained childless, he lived with his wife in chastity, probably in accordance with a Pythagorean rule. Although a Platonist, T. took the or…


(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Priscianus Lydus

(272 words)

Author(s): Brisson, Luc (Paris)
[German version] (Πρισκιανός Λυδός/ Priskianós Lydós). Neoplatonist of the 6th cent. AD, from Lydia. According to Agathias (II 30-31 = Suda, s. v. Πρέσβεις, Vol. 4, p. 192,18-29 Adler), P. was part of the group of philosophers who (along with Simplicius and Damascius) adhered to the old religion and sought refuge at the court of the Persian king Chosroes [5] I when the emperor Justinian [1] closed the Academy in Athens in 529. It was not long before their hopes in that regard proved to be illusory, a…


(335 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ἱέραξ; Hiérax). [German version] [1] H. of Antiochia, strategos of Ptolemy VI after 146 BC H. of Antiochia, deserted Demetrius [7] I for Alexander [13] Balas (Diod. Sic. 33,3), and then deserted him in 146 BC for Ptolemy VI, whom he had proclaimed king by the Antiochenes (Diod. Sic. 32,9 c). He had a high position at the court and, as strategos (?) of Ptolemy VIII, he foiled the uprising of  Galestes, but then was eliminated by the king (Diod. Sic. 33,22; FGrH 87 F 4). PP 1/8,264; 2, 2163; 6, 17012. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Commander in chief of Ptolemy IX in 88 BC Sent by Ptolemy…


(1,040 words)

Author(s): Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Δαμάσκιος; Damáskios) [German version] A. Life Neoplatonist, last head of the  Academy in Athens, born around AD 462 in Damascus, studied rhetoric around 479/80 with a certain Theon in Alexandria and there also was a member of the Platonist circle. Around 482/3 he went to Athens to teach rhetoric. Around 491/2 he gave up this career and initially studied propaedeutic sciences under  Marinus, who had succeeded Proclus in 485, then philosophy under  Zenodotus. Around 515 Damascius returned to Athens to…
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