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Azetium

(88 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Town in Calabria (Plin. HN 3,105: Aezetini). Ἀζητινῶν on bronze coins of the 3rd cent. BC [1; 3. 99-116], Ezetium in Tab. Peut. 6,5, and Geogr. Rav. 4,35. Modern Castiello (near Rutigliano). Monuments: large wall ring of the 4th to 3rd cents. BC, graves and other archaeological remains dating from the 6th cent. BC to the 2nd/3rd cent. AD [2; 3. 13f., 66-72].  Peucetii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 HN 45 2 M. T. Giannotta, s.v. Castiello, BTCGI 5, 125- 127 3 Il territorio di Rutigliano in età antica, 1992.

Messapians, Messapia

(730 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιοι/ Messápioi, Μεσσαπία/ Messapía). A people and region in the extreme southeast of Italy. According to Str. 6,3,1; 6,3,5, these are Greek terms for the Iapyges and Iapygia, south of the isthmus between Taras/Tarentum and Brundisium (Str. 6,3,1; 5). Their indigenous name was partly Salentinoi (on the southern tip and the Ionian coast), partly Kalabroi. According to most sources, the terms designated all of southeastern Italy, including the Daunii (or Daunia), the Peucetii (or Peucetia), and the Iapyges or Iapygia (Pol. 3,88; …

Manduria

(151 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] City of the Messapii and the Sallentini south-east of Taras (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μανδύριον; Manduris, Geogr. Rav. 4,31; 5,1; Amandrinum, Guido 72), with source (Plin. HN 2,226; [2; 5]). After siding with Carthage in 209 BC, it was reconquered by the Romans (Liv. 27,15,4: 3,000 prisoners and huge booty). The Spartan king Archidamus [2] fell at M. in 338 BC (Plut. Agis 3,2); modern Manduria. Finds of Messapian inscriptions [3; 5]; important archaeological remains: triple ring of walls (5th, …

Lucani, Lucania

(931 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Λευκανοί/ Leukanoí, Λευκανία/ Leukanía). Italian people and region in southern Italy (modern Basilicata), who descended from the Samnites (Str. 5,3,1; 6,1,2f.) and in the 5th cent. BC (after their migration under the mythological king Lamiscus, cf. Heraclides, Perì tôn en tôi Helládi póleōn [= Poleis] 20) mixed with the Oenotri (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 64-71; Hdt. 1,167; Antiochus FGrH 555 F 1-3) in the area south of the Silaris (modern Sele), where the latter had settled [6; 10; 16; 18]. Around 440 BC, battles with the Thurii …

Petelia

(296 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Πετηλία; Petēlía). City on a hill (341 m elevation) to the north of  Croton (Liv. 27,26,5; Str. 6,1,3; Plut. Marcellus 29); modern Strongoli. Philoctetes was considered its mythical founder (Cato fr. 70; Verg. Aen. 3,402 with Serv.; Cincius fr. 53; Str. l.c.; Solin. 2,10). P. was the mētrópolis of the Lucani, was fortified by the Samnites against the Thurii (Str. l.c.) [2], in the second of the Punic Wars was on the Roman side and was conquered by the Carthaginians in 215 after a long siege (Liv. 23,20,4-10; 30,1-5; Pol. 7,1…

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Nicotera

(51 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Station on the via Popilia in Bruttium (It. Ant. 106,2; 111,3: 18 miles south of Vibo Valentia), modern Nicótera. Probably not identical with Emporiom, the harbour of Medma (Str. 6,1,5). Iron Age, Greek and Roman finds, Latin inscriptions. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography Nissen 2, 959f.  BTCGI 12, 336-338.

Hydruntum

(510 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Bronze Age until Imperial Period A harbour town on the Iapygian coast (supposed to have been founded by Cretans, Steph. Byz. s.v. Βίεννος), c. 70 km south of  Brundisium in the area between Adriatic and Ionian Sea (Liv. 36,21,5; Plin. HN 3,100; CIL X 1795; Ps.-Scyl. 14; 27; Str. 6,3,4), where the crossing to Greece is the shortest (Plin. HN 3,100f.; cf. Cic. Att. 15,21,3; but Luc. 5,375: avius Hydrus [1]), modern Otranto. H. played an important role in the Bronze (Mycenaean finds) [2; 3] and Iron Age (settlement remains of the 9th/8th cents. BC,…

Sinus Terinaeus

(72 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Τεριναῖος κόλπος; Terinaîos kólpos). Bay named after the port of Terina on the Tyrrhenian coast of Bruttium (Thuc. 6,104,2; Plin. HN 3,72; 95), modern Golfo di Santa Eufemia. Possibly identical [1] with the Kólpos Napētínos (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 3; 5), Lamētikós (Aristot. Pol. 1329b) or Hippōniátēs (Str. 6,1,4). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 G. De Sensi Sestito, Tra l'Amato e il Savuto, vol. 1, 1999, 63-68, 214, 227-229.

Pandosia

(276 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία; Pandosía). [German version] [1] City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus. Allegedly one of the four Elean colonies in the territory of the Cassopaei on the Acheron [1] (Demosth. Or. 7,32; Theopompus FGrH 115 F 382). It is presumed that it was founded in the 8th/7th cent. BC [1; 3. 427] or not until the 5th cent. [2. 52]. P. is located near Trikastron about 17 km inland [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Coins: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die antiken M…

Calabri, Calabria

(636 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] A. Definition South-eastern extension of the Italian peninsula (Str. 6,3,1: its name possibly of indigenous origin; [1; 2. 32], for different view [5]), modern Salento. Καλαβρία ( Kalabría) is first attested for Rhinto (Hsch. s.v. K.), c. 300 BC; according to Str. 6,3,5, most authors used Kalabría synonymously with Ἰαπυγία ( Iapygía), Μεσσαπία ( Messapía) and Σαλεντίνη ( Salentínē) for the peninsula south of the isthmus of Tarentum -- Brundisium. The earliest mention of the tribe of that region as Καλαβροί ( Kalaboí) in Pol. 10.1; in Roman triumphs (of 280, 2…

Lupiae

(118 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Theater Messapisch-röm. Stadt in Calabria zw. Brundisium und Hydruntum (Itin. Anton. 118,3; Luppia, Tab. Peut. 7,1) mit einem unter Kaiser Hadrianus erbauten Adria-Hafen (Paus. 6,19,9; Ptol. 3,1,12; Mela 2,4; Strab. 6,3,6). Röm. municipium in der 2. augusteischen Region (Plin. nat. 3,101); h. Lecce. Messapische und lat. Inschr.; Überreste: Mauern und Gräber (4.-2. Jh.v.Chr.), röm. Theater und Amphitheater (vgl. Guido, Cosmographia 28). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 BTCGI 8, 1990, 520-522 2 L. Gia…

Mataurus

(137 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Punische Kriege (Μέταυρος). Fluß (Plin. nat. 3,73), h. Petrace, und Stadt ( Taurianum, Mela 2,68; Geogr. Rav. 4,36) in Bruttium (Bruttii) am tyrrhenischen Meer, von Zankle (Solin. 2,11) oder Lokroi (Steph. Byz., s.v. Μ.) gegr. Heimat des Dichters Stesichoros (Steph. Byz.; Suda s.v. Στησίχορος) [2], h. Gioia Tauro. Arch. Überreste einer Nekropole (archa. Zeit und Kaiserzeit) in Contrada Pietra [1; 4]; architektonische Terrakotta-Funde archa. Zeit [4]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. De Franciscis, Μέ…

Azetium

(74 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Stadt in Calabria (Plin. nat. 3,105: Aezetini). Ἀζητινῶν auf Bronzemünzen des 3.Jh. v.Chr. [1; 3. 99-116], Ezetium in der Tab. Peut. 6,5, und Geogr. Rav. 4,35. Heute Castiello (nahe Rutigliano). Monumente: Großer Mauerring 4.-3.Jh. v.Chr., Gräber u.a. arch. Reste vom 6.Jh. v.Chr. bis 2.-3.Jh. n.Chr. [2; 3. 13f., 66-72]. Peucetii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 HN 45 2 M.T. Giannotta, s.v. Castiello, BTCGI 5, 125- 127 3 Il territorio di Rutigliano in et àntica, 1992.

Castra

(1,894 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Köln) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Militärlager [English version] [I 1] Allgemein Die röm. Soldaten sorgten immer dafür, durch Befestigungsanlagen geschützt zu sein. Dies galt auch, wenn sie auf Feldzügen nur für eine Nacht Halt machten. Abends bei der Ankunft mußte das Marschlager errichtet und morgens beim Aufbruch wieder zerstört werden. Der Plural c. bezeichnete jegliche Art von Militärlager, der Singular castrum existierte zwar, wurde im mil. Vokabular jedoch nicht benutzt. Castellum, das auch eine zivile Bed. hatte, ist Diminutiv zu c. (Veg. mil. 3,8). Der Ursprung der röm. Lager liegt im Ungewissen…

Manduria

(136 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Stadt der Messapii und Sallentini südöstl. von Taras (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μανδύριον; Manduris, Geogr. Rav. 4,31; 5,1; Amandrinum, Guido 72), mit Quelle (Plin. nat. 2,226; [2; 5]). Nach Parteinahme für Karthago 209 v.Chr. von den Römern zurückerobert (Liv. 27,15,4: 3000 Gefangene und große Beute). 338 v.Chr. wurde bei M. der spartanische König Archidamos [2] getötet (Plut. Agis 3,2); h. Manduria. Messapische Inschriftenfunde [3; 5]; wichtige arch. Überreste: dreifacher Mauerring (des 5.,…

Rudiae

(122 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Italien, Sprachen | Theater Stadt der Sal(l)entini (Ptol. 3,1,76) in Calabria, Heimat des Dichters Ennius [1] (fr. 377 Vahlen; vgl. Cic. Arch. 10,22; Strab. 6,3,5; Sil. 12,393-397; Ps.-Acro 4,80,20; von Plin. nat. 3,102 und Mela 2,66 mit R. in Apulia verwechselt). R. liegt im SW von Lupiae (h. Lecce; Strab. 6,1,2; Guido, Geographia 28,71). Erh. haben sich Reste der Wehrmauern (4.-3. Jh. v. Chr.), reiche Gräber aus klass. und hell. Zeit [2; 3] mit messapischen Inschr. [1; 3]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 M. B…

Neaethus

(160 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] (Νέαιθος, Strab. 6,1,12; Ναύαιθος, Apollodoros FHG 1,180 fr. 3, aus νε- oder ναυ- + αἴθω - vgl. aber [6]). Fluß in Bruttium nördl. von Kroton (Plin. nat. 3,97), der im Sila-Gebirge entspringt, h. Neto. Angeblich so benannt, weil dort die gefangenen Troerinnen die Schiffe der Achaioi verbrannten (Lykophr. 921 mit schol.; Strab. 6,1,12: daher viele achaiische Siedlungen am N.; schol. Theokr. 4,24; Euphorion bei Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀσκανία; Suda s.v. Ναίεθος; Etym. m. s.v. Ναύαιθος) […

Nicotera

(50 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[English version] Station an der Via Popilia in Bruttium (Itin. Anton. 106,2; 111,3: 18 Meilen südl. von Vibo Valentia), h. Nicótera. Wohl nicht identisch mit Emporion, dem Hafen von Medma (Strab. 6,1,5). Eisenzeitliche, griech. und röm. Funde; lat. Inschr. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography Nissen 2, 959f.  BTCGI 12, 336-338.

Neaethus

(177 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Νέαιθος/ Néaithos), Strab. 6,1,12; Ναύαιθος/ Naúaithos, Apollodorus FHG 1,180 fr. 3, from νε- or ναυ- + αἴθω - but cf. [6]). River in Bruttium to the north of Croton (Plin. HN 3,97), rising in the Sila mountains, modern Neto. Allegedly so called because it was there that the captured Trojan women burnt the Achaeans' ships  (Lycophr. 921 with schol.; Str. 6,1,12: hence many Achaean settlements on the N.; schol. Theocr. 4,24; Euphorion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀσκανία; Suda s.v. Ναίεθος; Et…
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