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Zeuxis

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Ζεῦξις/ Zeûxis). [German version] [1] Greek painter and sculptor, c. 435/25-390 BC Greek painter and sculptor, active between c. 435/25 and 390 BC. He was one of the pioneers of the great era of Greek painting which would retain its high standards for over a century. 'Heraclea', which Plin. HN 35,61 gives as his place of origin, seems more likely to be the Sicilian Heraclea [9] Minoa ([1. 382]; but [2]: Heraclea [7] Pontica?) than Heraclea [10] in Lucania [3. 60], since Z. was the pupil of an otherwise unknown ma…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Nicarchus

(380 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος; Níkarchos). [German version] [1] General of Antiochus III, 218 BC Active at the beginning of the Fourth  Syrian War as one of  Antiochus  [5] III's generals. In 218 BC he took part in Antiochus advance into southern Syria at the occupation of the narrows on the River  Lycus  and later at the conquest of Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) and became commander of the garrison there. In the battle of  Raphia in 217 he led the part of Antiochus' phalanx whose weakness contributed to the downfall of the Seleucids (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibli…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Philetaerus

(662 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Φιλέταιρος; Philétairos). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (1st half of 4th cent. BC), according to Dicaearchus, son of the comic poet Aristophanes [3] [1. test. 1; 2. 192], though this remains uncertain owing to some discrepancies in ancient tradition [3]. In the list of victors at the Lenaea, P. has two victories immediately after Anaxandrides and before Eubulus. Of the total of 21 pieces attributed to P. by the Suda [1. test. 1], the titles…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two trirem…

Court titles

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A. Antecedents in the ancient Orient Court titles (CT) and court ranks in antiquity, used for the description and creation of personal proximity of members of courtly society to the  ruler or to the hierarchical rank classification of the upper class involved in administration, are a consequence of the emergence of territorial monarchies from the time of Alexander [4] the Great and the resulting organization of  courts as centres of political rule. The question of ancient Oriental antec…

Iotape

(143 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Ἰοτάπη; Iotápē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene Daughter of Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene. She was married to Alexander, the son of Tigranes, a descendant of Hero and for a short while king of Armenia. With the support of the Roman emperor Vespasian (= AD 79) her husband became king of a small territory in Cilicia and had coins minted with images of himself and his wife (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18, 139-141). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, The Dynasty of Commagene, in: ANRW II 8, 1977, 794f. [German version] [2] Coastal town in Cilicia …

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Bacchides

(63 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Βακχίδης; Bakchídēs). ‘Friend’ of the Seleucid Antiochus IV, who governed Mesopotamia on his behalf. In 162 BC, he installed Alcimus as high priest under the orders of Demetrius I, defeated Iudas Maccabaeus, and strictly upheld Seleucid rulership over Judea (1 Macc 7-9; Ios. Bell. Iud. 1,35f.; Ant. Iud. 12,393-396; 420ff. passim; 13,4ff. passim Niese.  Antiochus [2-12] Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)

Marion

(166 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
M. was installed by Cassius [I 10] Longinus as ruler (‘ tyrannos ’) of the city of Tyre in 43/2 BC. M. supported the Hasmonean Antigonus [5], who had returned from exile, in his attempt to regain ground in Galilee and Judea against Herod ( Herodes [1]). Herod drove M. out of Galilee, but gave gifts to some of the captured Tyrian soldiers and sent them home (Jos. BI. 1,238f.; Ant. Iud. 14,297f.). [German version] [1] Ruler of the city of Tyre, 43/2 v.Chr. Marion M. was installed by Cassius [I 10] Longinus as ruler (‘ tyrannos’) of the city of Tyre in 43/2 BC. M. supported the  Hasmonean An…

Paroikoi

(244 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(πάροικοι; pároikoi). [German version] [1] Free non-citizens in Hellenistic states and Roman provinces In the Hellenistic states of Asia Minor and the Near East and the Roman provinces that arose out of them, free people, mostly indigenous but without citizenship, living in kṓmai ( kṓmē ) in the territory of a pólis were predominantly called paroikoi. In emergency situations, freed and non-free people, particularly those belonging to the (royal) farmers ( láoi), could be made paroikoi, and paroikoi from a pólis's synoikismós could be made citizens of that pólis. In legal status wi…

Molon

(443 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μόλων; Mólōn). [German version] [1] Satrap of Media and governor-general of the Upper Satrapies in 222 BC In 222 BC, together with his brothers Alexander and Neolaus, M., as satrap of Media and governor-general of the Upper Satrapies, rebelled against the young Antiochus [5] III and assumed the title of king (on coins: βασιλέως Μόλωνος). M. repelled Antiochus' military commanders, occupied the Apolloniatis (left bank of the Tigris, to the north of Babylon), crushed an army led by Xenoitas in 221 and conquered t…

Eumenes

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐμένης; Euménēs). [German version] [1] Chancellor of Philippos II and Alexander the Gr. * 362/1, Son of Hieronymus of Cardia, from 342 onwards chancellor for the Macedonian king Philip II and then for Alexander III, for whom he kept the ephemerides (Nep. Eumenes 1,4-6; Plut. Eumenes 1,4; Arr. Anab. 7,4,6; Ath. 10,434b). In 326, E. was strategos on a military mission in north-western India and then he was the trierarch of the Indus fleet (Arr. Anab. 5,24,6, Ind. 18,7; Curt. 9,1,19). At the mass wedding in Susa in 324, E. was probably the only Greek…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Diomedon

(191 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Διομέδων; Diomédōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Antiochus III As the commander of Seleucia on the Tigris under Antiochus III, he fled from Molon, the advancing rebel satrap of Media (Pol. 5,48,12). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. As strategos, he brought reinforcements to the Athenian troops in Asia Minor in 412-11 BC, regained control over seceding Lesbos together with Leon, and was victorious against the Rhodians (Thuc. …

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Hippolochus

(149 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἱππόλοχος; Hippólochos). [German version] [1] Son of Bellerophontes Son of  Bellerophontes, father of the Lycian Prince  Glaucus [4] (Hom. Il. 6,206 et passim). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Trojan Trojan, falls into Agamemnon's hands alongside his brother  Peisander. Agamemnon harshly rejects the ransom for the brothers by pointing to their father  Antimachus' [1] guilt and kills them both (Hom. Il. 11,122-148). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 173f. [German version] [3] Thess…
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