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Pacorus

(369 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Member of the Parthian royal house P. (not P. I!), a son of Orodes [2] II; he is central to the first phase of the  Parthian Wars which followed the battle of Carrhae. In 53 BC, P. got engaged to a sister of the Armenian king Artavasdes [2] II, sealing the latter's coming over to the Parthian side. The Parthian invasion of Syria (51-50) was only nominally under the leadership of P., who was still young.  He played a greater part in the great attack on Syria, carried out under his command from 41 onward, but after initial success he died at Gindarus in 38 BC. Parthia Schottky, Mart…

Vaballathus

(173 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] L. Iulius Aurelius Septimius V. Athenodorus, son of Odaenathus [2] and Zenobia, perhaps identical to the Timolaos [5] mentioned in the Historia Augusta (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2 et passim; but cf. SHA Aur. 38,1). He was still a child when his father was murdered (in AD 267), so that his career was guided by Zenobia: V. appears after 267 as rex regum and corrector totius orientis (CIS II 3971), was later imperator and dux Romanorum [1] and Augustus in the spring of 272 (ILS 8924). Coins from Alexandria showing both Aurelianus [3] and V. should n…

Rodericus (Roderic)

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (German Roderich, Spanish Rodrigo, Arabic Luḏrīq). Last king of the Visigoths. The so-called Crónica Mozárabe (in Spanish) of AD 754, which provides information about the end of the West Gothic empire, reveals that R. was initially provincial governor (of Hispania Baetica ?) and in 710, after the death of Witiza, was elected king, an election which did not go unopposed. At the very time the Muslims invaded Spain in April/May 711, R. was fighting the Basques; yet he managed to deploy an approxim…

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Orodes

(580 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ὀρώδης; Orṓdēs). [German version] [1] O. I Parthian king, 1st cent. BC Parthian king around 81/80-76/5 BC who is mentioned under the name Uruda only in cuneiform texts [1. 517, 1162f., 1165, 1170f., 1174, 1446]. He was probably a son of Artabanus [4] I and therefore a brother of the kings Mithridates [13] II and Gotarzes I who ruled before him and Sanatruces who ruled after him. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 T.G. Pinches, J.N. Strassmaier, A. J. Sachs, Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts, 1955. J. Oelsner, Randbemerkungen zur arsakidischen Geschichte …

Cavades

(263 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] C.I. Sassanid king since 488 AD Sassanid king from AD 488, son of  Perozes. After he had first played individual powerful families off against each other, he supported the social-religious movement of  Mazdac in order to destroy the power of the aristocracy. This led in 496 to a conspiracy of the Zarathustrian clergy with the higher nobility, in the course of which C.'s brother Zamasphes was elevated to the throne whilst he himself disappeared in the ‘castle of oblivion’. C. managed…

Aspurgos

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ἀσποῦργος; Aspoûrgos). Although this Bosporan king is unknown to literary sources, his reign can be attested for AD 10/11-38/9. A. was therefore the (direct?) successor to his mother  Dynamis, who reigned until AD 7/8. The name of his father is given in inscriptions as Ἀσάνδροχος/Asándrochos (IOSPE II 36), doubtless a variant of  Asander [3]. A. was not acknowledged by Rome until he appeared there in person [1. 337 with n. 8]. A. was the father of the later Bosporan king Cotys [II…

Perozes

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Greek Περόζης; Perózēs). [German version] [1] P.I. Persian king of kings, 459-484 AD (Arabic Fīrūz). Persian Great King (AD 459-484), son of Yazdgird II. His reign is characterised by disputes with tribes of Hunni, who were already supporting a campaign for the throne against Hormisdas [5] III. In about AD 465 P. got into conflict with king Kunchas of the Kidarites, to whom he sent a woman to be his wife, claiming that she was his sister (Priscus fr. 41 Blockley). More dangerous to him were the Hephthalitae,…

Nabedes

(64 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ναβέδης; Nabédēs). Military commander under Chosroes [5] I in the Persian War of Iustinianus [1]. Initially commandant of Nisibis (Procop. Pers. 2,18,9; 19; Procop. Anecdota 2,28), he defeated the Romans in AD 543 at Anglon in the region of Dvin/Persarmenia (Procop. Pers. 2,25,5-35) and in 550 undertook an invasion of Lazica (Procop. Goth. 4,9,6f.). PLRE 3, 909. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Shirin (Sira)

(133 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [1] Wife of Chosroes [6] II, c. 600 AD (Šīrīn, Σειρέμ / Seirém, Σιρήν/ Sirḗn). A Christian from Ḫūzistan, one of the wives of Chosroes [6] II, who was elevated by him to queen in AD 592 (Theophylaktos Simokattes, Historiae 5,13,7). She was still alive in 627 (Theophanes, Chronographia anno mundi 6118). Only late oriental authors tell of her suicide over the corpse of her husband [1. 401-405]. The S. topic underwent many literary revisions in the Islamic world, of which the epic Chosrou and S. by the Persian poet Neẓāmī (Nesami; translate…

Naimanes

(101 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (App. Mithr. 19: Nemánēs; but cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 22: Menophánēs). An Armenian in the service of Mithridates [6] VI of Pontus, who dealt M. Aquillius [I 4] a heavy defeat in Bithynia in 88 BC. He seems then to have entered the service of the Paphlagonian king Mithridates Philopator Philadelphus, a son of Mithridates VI, as a ‘N., son of Naimanes’ appears among the envoys who brought gifts in the former's name to the Roman Capitol in about 80 BC (CIL I2 730 = CIL VI 30922 = ILS 30 = ILLRP 180). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Sinnaces

(88 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Son of Sūrēn Abdagaeses, centre of a conspiracy against the Parthian king Artabanus [5] II. At his instigation, in AD 35 a Parthian legation obtained from Tiberius the dispatch of prince Phraates to be pretender to the throne. After his death, Phraates' son or nephew Tiridates was installed as his successor in the Parthian Empire by L. Vitellius, the legate of Syria. S. took  Tiridates' side, taking with him his own troops (Tac. Ann. 6,31 f.; 6,36 f.). S.' subsequent fate is unknown. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Mithrobuzanes

(75 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Μιθροβουζάνης; Mithrobouzánēs). Son of Zariadris of Sophene, who was at the court of Ariarathes V of Cappadocia when his father died (163 BC). Ariarathes rejected the proposal of Artaxias I (Artaxias [1]) of Armenia to eliminate the sons of Zariadris and to split Sophene between Armenia and Cappadocia, and helped M. to take up his throne (Diod. Sic. 31,22; Pol. 31,16). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenien, 1989, 196-199.

Bas

(83 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βᾶς; Bâs). The Bithynian dynast was the son of Boteiras and second successor to  Doedalses. Memnon (FGrH 434 F 12,4) gives him 71 years, of which he ruled for 50 (377/6-328 BC). His victory over Calas, the satrap charged by Alexander [4] the Great with the conquest of  Bithynia, falls in his late phase (between 333 and 328). This event gave rise to an independent Bithynian ‘kingdom’, whose first king was B.'s son  Zipoetes [1] . Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Osroes

(176 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] 1st cent. AD Parthian king Son of Vologaeses I, who fought Pacorus for the Parthian crown from AD 89/90, but did not succeed until 108/9. His meddling in Armenia (cf. Axidares; Parthamasiris) provoked Trajan's Parthian War (Parthian and Persian Wars), which O. weathered despite severe setbacks. In 117, he expelled his son Parthamaspates, who had been drawn to the Roman side and whom Trajan had made king of the Parthians. A treaty was concluded at a meeting with Hadrian in 123, and O…

Sampsigeramus

(184 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σαμψιγέραμος; Sampsigéramos) [German version] [1] Prince of Emesa and Arethusa, 1st cent. BC The prince of Emesa and Arethusa (Str. 16,2,11) in Syria; was an (unfaithful) ally of Antiochus [14] XIII, whom he captured twice and killed in 64 BC (Diod. Sic. 40,1b). His good relationship with Pompeius [I 3] prompted Cicero to use his exotic Aramaic name as a nickname for Pompey (Cic. Att. 2,14,1; 16,2; 17,1-2; 23,2-3). S. was named among the princes who supported the rebellion of the Pompeian Caecilius [I 5] Bassus, which began in 46 BC (Str. 16,2,10). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …

Shahrbaraz

(77 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Chosroes [6] II's general who in 614 AD conquered Jerusalem and in 626 besieged Constantinople. On 27 April 630 he overthrew Ardashir [3] III and ruled as Persian king of kings until he was himself killed on 9 June 630 [1]. PLRE 3B, 1141-1144. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 M. Ibn-G. at Tabari, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (with German transl., comm. and additions by  Th. Nöldeke), 1879 (reprint 1973), 290-303, 388-390.

Tigranes

(812 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Τιγράνης/ Tigránēs). [German version] [1] T. I. Father of T. [2] (App. Syr. 48), king of Armenia around 120-95 BC. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] T. II. Son of T. [1], born in 140 BC. In c. 120 BC, after a lost battle against the Parthians, he was given over to them, to be released in Armenia in 95. For his release, he had to hand over an area containing 70 valleys. In c. 93, T. annexed Orontes' [6] IV kingdom of Sophene. Not later than after the death of the Parthian king Mithridates [13] II (88/87), he recaptured the 70 valleys and annexed other…

Vasaces

(111 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 62, the Parthian Vologaeses I succeeded in encircling the Roman army of Caesennius [4] Paetus near Rhandia. V.--commander of the cavalry--was sent from the Parthian side to negotiate the capitulation. In the discussion, Paetus prided himself on the Roman supremacy over Armenia which had been in existence from Licinius [I 26] Lucullus and Pompeius [I 3] , while V. emphasised the actual Parthian dominance. His part in the negotiations that followed cannot be clearly determined…

Orophernes

(192 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Member of the royal family of Cappadocia, 4th cent. BC Brother of Ariarathes I of Cappadocia who helped Artaxerxes [3] III in the Egyptian campaigns. His brother adopted his son Ariarathes II. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] Member of the royal family Cappadocia, 2nd cent. BC (also Olophernes in the manuscripts). Son of Ariarathes  IV of Cappadocia and Antiochis. He was allegedly foisted on the king by the queen who was initially childless. When she wanted to obtain the crown for her younger son Mithridates…
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