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Antalcidas

(491 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀντιαλκίδας; Antalkídas in IG V 1,93 ll. 15 and 212). At some time in the spring of 392 BC or the preceding winter A., through the mediation of the satrap  Tiribazus and abandoning the Greeks of Asia Minor, was to make peace with the Persian king [3; 7], the victory of  Conon at Cnidus having left Sparta in a precarious situation. As Sparta no longer controlled the poleis of Asia Minor, the attempt was a failure, although A. did receive a secret subsidy from Tiribazus for the expansion of the Spartan fleet (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Plut. Ages. 23,2). In the summer of 388 as   nauarch…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Cratesiclea

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρατησίκλεια). Wife of Leonidas II, mother of  Cleomenes [6] III, who was strongly in favour of his reform plans. Following her son's flight to Ptolemy III, she went to Egypt as a hostage and was executed there in 219 BC after the failure of Cleomenes' coup (Plut. Cleomenes 6,2; 7,1; 22,3-10; 38,2-12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Polytropus

(77 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πολύτροπος/ Polýtropos). Commander of a detachment of mercenaries recruited in Corinth, which fought for Sparta in 370/369 BC against the newly founded koinón of the Arcadians (see also Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; [1. 80 ff.]) and occupied the polis of Orchomenus [3] because it did not wish to join the Arcadians' League. P. fell in action against Mantinean troops (Xen. Hell. 6,5,11-14; cf. Diod. Sic. 15,62,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Beck, Polis und Koinon, 1997.

Sperthias

(126 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Hdt. 7,134,2: Σπερθίης/ Sperthíēs; Plut. Mor. 235f: Σπέρτις/ Spértis; 815e: Σπέρχις/ Spérchis). A high-ranking Spartan (Spartiatae) who is supposed to have offered himself and the Spartan Boulis in Susa as atonement for the ambassadors of Darius [1] I who had allegedly been killed in Sparta in 491 BC, but refused to prostrate himself before Xerxes who nevertheless set him free (Hdt. 7,134,2-136). Whether Persian ambassadors had appeared in Sparta in 491 BC, however, remains questionable [1.…

Cnemus

(84 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κνῆμος; Knêmos). Spartan nauarchos (fleet commander) in 430/29 BC, destroyed Zacynthus in 430, conducted operations in Acarnania in 429 and was defeated at Oeniadae (Thuc. 2,66; 80-82; Diod. Sic. 12,47,4f.). C.'s formations suffered heavy losses in 429 at Stratus and Naupactus against the Athenians under Phormion. In the late autumn of 429 an assault that C. and his ‘adviser’  Brasidas had planned against Piraeus was called off; Salamis was laid waste instead (Thuc. 2,83-94; Diod. Sic. 12,49). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischolaus

(41 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχόλαος; Ischólaos). Spartan, fought in the Corinthian War against Chabrias in Thrace (Polyaen. Strat. 2,22), fell in battle in Scritis against the Arcadians during the winter of 370/69 BC (Xen. Hell. 6,5,24-26; Diod.Sic. 15,64,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lampito

(87 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λαμπιτώ; Lampitṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, 5th cent. BC Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, wife of king Archidamus [1] II, mother of the later king Agis [2] II (Hdt. 6,71; Plut. Agesilaus 1; Pl. Alc. 1,123c); Aristophanes (Lys.) uses the name for a typical female representative of Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] c. 300 BC Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] (Ath. 13,593e-f; Diog. Laert. 5,76). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gorgo

(604 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Horrific monster Female monster in Greek mythology. According to the canonical version of the myth (Apollod. 2,4,1-2),  Perseus must get the head of  Medusa, the mortal sister of Sthenno and Euryale (Hes. Theog. 276f.; POxy. 61, 4099), the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto (cf. Aeschylus' drama Phorcides, TrGF 262). The three sisters live on the island of Sarpedon in the ocean (Cypria, fr. 23; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 11), although Pindar (Pyth. 10,44-48) located them among the Hyperboraeans ( Hyperborei). Their connection to the s…

War guilt, problem of

(489 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Indications of public indignation at peace-breakers in Homer (Hom. Od. 24,424-437) and the emergence of the Roman fetiales rite as the opening of a bellum iustum (International law) show that even in the Archaic period wars were not regarded as a normal state of affairs and that WG was discussed [1. 127]. WG acquired greater political significance in the course of expansionist aspirations. The actions and causes which triggered battles between the Greeks and 'Barbarians' form a leitmotiv in the work of He…

Charillus

(57 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Χάριλλος; Chárillos, in Hdt. 8,131 Χαρίλαος; Charílaos). Historically uncertain Spartan king, Eurypontid; according to Sosibius (FGrH 595 F 2), ruled 874-811 BC and with King Archelaus conquered the perioikic city of Aegys (Paus. 3,2,5), but defeated by the Tegeans (Paus. 8,5,9). This data arises from constructions based on legend.   Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gorgopas

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γοργώπας; Gorgṓpas). Spartiate, in 389/8 BC. Epistoleús of the nauarch Hierax, who assigned to him the defence of the polis Aegina under the siege of Athens. He operated successfully against Athenian forces and against Attic coastal regions, accompanied the new nauarch Antalcidas to Ephesus in 388, and got into difficulties in a battle against an Athenian squadron on his return. He won the counter attack in a night battle at Cape Zoe, but was not up to the surprise attack of the Atheni…

Cleombrotus

(315 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Κλεόμβροτος; Kleómbrotos). [German version] [1] Agiad, Spartan commander in Salamis Agiad ( Agiads), brother of Leonidas I who died at Thermopylae in 480 BC and guardian of the latter's son Pleistarchus. As commander of the Peloponnesian forces, C. directed the fortification of the Isthmus of Corinth before the battle of Salamis, but died late that year or in the winter of 480/79 (Hdt. 5,41; 7,205,1; 8,71; 9,10; Paus. 3,3,9). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. I. Spartan king 380-371 BC Agiad, after the banishment of his father Pausanias in 394 BC under …

Stephanephoria

(184 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (στεφανηφορία/ stephanēphoría) was the term for the 'wearing of a garland' as a symbol of sacred or magisterial dignity, widespread in the Greek poleis of Asia Minor and often connected with eponymity (Eponyms in chronology). Eponymous stephanephoria is known primarily in Miletus (Syll.3 57; LSAM 50); it was carried out by the aisymnetai of the molpoi [1. 68, 7729]. In their name lists, which, with only a few interruptions, extend from 525/4 BC to AD 31/2 [2. no. 122-128], Alexander [4] and Augustus also appear (cf. [3. 167]). In Priene stephanephoria was at times t…

Dorieus

(553 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Δωριεύς; Dorieús). [German version] [1] Spartan, son of Anaxandridas II Spartan, Agiad, son of Anaxandridas II and his first wife, older brother of the kings Leonidas and Cleombrotus, younger half-brother of Cleomenes I, who was born before D., but to the second wife of Anaxandridas, whom he due to the initial infertility of his first wife had additionally married at the direction of the ephors and gerontes. After Cleomenes as the eldest son had succeeded to the throne (Hdt. 5,41f.; Paus. 3,3,9f.), D. organized ─ allegedly due to outrage over this ruling ─ a colonist campaign to Libya c. 51…

Kosmoi

(181 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne)
(κόσμοι; kósmoi). [German version] [1] Official in Cretan cities Name of the highest official in Cretan poleis, before the 3rd cent. BC, also attested as ho kósmos (singular) or hoi kosmíontes (plural). Kosmoi had political and military leadership functions in addition to their representative and judicial duties. The department of the kosmoi could include up to 10 officials and a ‘leader’ ( startagétas = stratēgós; later prōtókosmos). It made political decisions and was subject to the control of the people. If they performed their office well, the kosmoi could be elected to the co…

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Thorax

(592 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(θώραξ; thṓrax). [German version] [1] Cuirass Cuirass. As a part of Greek hoplite armour, the thorax protected the chest and the back. In the Geometric and Archaic Periods, it was commonly a bell-shaped armour made of bronze; it consisted of two hip-length plates that widened towards the bottom and were attached to each other at the sides. This thorax offered excellent cover against blows from lances and swords or shots from arrows, but it was extremely heavy and cumbersome and limited the soldiers' mobility to a great extent. It was therefore replaced…

Klarotai

(34 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλαρῶται; klarôtai). Non-free country-dwellers in Crete, who worked the klâroi ( klêros ) of full citizens in exchange for the payment of fees (Ath. 6,263e-f; Poll. 3,83). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apella, Apellai

(407 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] This word only occurs in the plural (ἀπέλλαι; apéllai) and is explained by Hesychius as σηκοί ( sēkoí; precincts) or by their function as ἐκκλησίαι ( ekklēsíai; people's assemblies) or ἐφαιρησίαι ( ephairēsíai; voting assemblies). The Labyad inscriptions in Delphi use apellai to refer to the  Apollo festival of the phratry during the religious month of Apellaios (Michel, RIG 995 = Schwyzer, DGE 323). Inscriptions from Gytheum (Laconia, 1st cent.) add the augmentative attribute μεγάλαι ( megálai; IG V 1, 1144, l.20 f.= SGDI 4567 = Michel, RIG 185; IG V 1, …

Paredros, Paredroi

(710 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
(πάρεδρος/ páredros, plural πάρεδροι/ páredroi, 'assessor' of political office-holders or deities). A. Politics [German version] 1. Athens (a) In the 5th and 4th cents. BC two paredroi were appointed each by the eponymous árchōn , the polémarchos and the basileús (see árchōn basileús) as assistants and deputies ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 56,1). Their position had an official character, as they were subordinate to the dokimasía and they were liable to account. (b) In the 4th cent. BC a pair of paredroi for each ten eúthynoi of the Council (see eúthynai ) of the 500 were chosen from the bouleutaí

Teleclus

(83 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τήλεκλος; Tḗleklos). King of Sparta, who according to legend played an important role a generation before the beginning of the first Messenian War. As a person he is probably historical; he is supposed to have conquered Amyclae, Pharis and Geronthrae (Paus. 3,2,6) and settled several places in Dentheliatis (Denthalii) with Laconic colonists (Str. 8,4,4). His killing by Messenians allegedly led to the first of the Messenian Wars (Paus. 4,4,2-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 85-87, 102-106.

Monimus

(373 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος/ Mónimos). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, pupil of Diogenes M. from Syracuse, slave of a Corinthian banker, heard Xeniades, a rich citizen of Corinth, extol the virtue of Diogenes [14] of Sinope, who lived with him. In order to be able to leave his master and follow Diogenes, M. made out that he was insane; he was dismissed and so became Diogenes' pupil. He also stayed with Crates [4] for a long time and imitated his way of life (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. must have been famous, as he appears in…

Proxenia, proxenos

(228 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προξενία/ proxenía, πρόξενος/ próxenos). The term proxenía denotes the function of a 'public guest' ( próxenos), i.e. one citizen's representing one Greek community in another 'state'. It is a specifically Greek institution, traceable to the protection of foreigners (Xenoi; Aliens, the position of [III]) and first attested in a late 7th cent. BC resolution of the 'people' ( dâmos) of Corfu  (ML 4). In the 5th cent. BC, proxenía moreover became an Athenian instrument of control in the Delian League, where próxenoi represented Athenian interests, reporting if n…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Prytaneis

(837 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(πρυτάνεις/ prytáneis, sg. πρύτανις/ prýtanis, 'principal, first'). [German version] I. Individual chief magistrates Designation for holders of the highest power or official authority. The original meaning 'ruler' is given expression in the epic name Prýtanis (Hom. Il. 5,678), in Zeus' appellation in Aeschylus (Prom. 169), as well as in the verb form applied to the Roman emperor and empress ( prytaneúein; Phil. in Flaccum 126; Procop. Arc. 17,27). In the course of the institutionalization of the organs of the polis and during the 'Great' Greek Colonizati…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Chilonis

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Χιλωνίς; Chilōnís). [German version] [1] Legendary wife of king Theopompus Legendary figure, said to be the wife of king  Theopompus, whom she is supposed to have freed from imprisonment by Messenians (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,34; Quint. Inst. 2,17,20; Plut. Lycurgus 7,2; Mor. 779e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wife of Cleonymus, 3rd cent. BC Wife of  Cleonymus, son of Cleomenes II; she committed adultery with Acrotatus, later to be king; after the death of Cleonymus, who had left Sparta because of her, and joined Pyrrhus, she apparently married Acrotatus (Syll.3 …

Cleonymus

(376 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Κλεώνυμος; Kleṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, put two important proposals forward in 426/5 BC Athenian politician; in the year 426/5 BC he put forward two important proposals: one concerned  Methone in Thrace, the other the collection of tributes from the  Delian League (IG I3 61,32-56; 68). C. was probably a member of the council in that year. In 415 he was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of an investigation into the religious scandals ( Herms, mutilation of the; And. 1.27). Aristophanes derided him as a glutt…

Pasippidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιππίδας; Pasippídas). Spartiate and naval commander in the eastern Aegaean in 410/409 BC probably in the role of naúarchos; he was charged with conspiring in Thasos to stage an uprising against a group favouring Sparta and the harmost Eteonicus. He fled, but as early as 409 was sent as a legate to Persia (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32; 1,3,13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Sophanes

(135 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφάνης/ Sōphánēs). Athenian from Decelea, son of Eutychides (Hdt. 6,92,3; 9,73,1). In 490 BC after the battle of Marathon he refused to honour Miltiades [2] with a wreath (Plut. Cimon 8,1), since the victory was understood to be a success of the dêmos as a whole [1. 193]. S. distinguished himself by particular bravery in the Athenians' war with Aegina in 488/7 (Hdt. 6,92; 9,75; Paus. 1,29,5) and in the battle of Plataeae in 479 (Hdt. 9,73-75; Plut. Cato maior 29,2). He fell in 465/4 as a stratēgós and one of the commanders of the colonists who advanced from Ennea…

Hippitas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἱππίτας; Hippítas). Confidant of the Spartan king Cleomenes III, whom he accompanied to Alexandria after the battle of Sellasia, where he had himself killed willingly after the latter's failed uprising against Ptolemy IV in 219 BC (Pol. 5,37,8; Plut. Cleomenes 37,6-13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Clearidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεαρίδας; Klearídas). Spartan, son of Cleonymus. Appointed by  Brasidas in 423 BC as commander at Amphipolis, C. proved himself after Brasidas' death in 422. After the peace of  Nicias he did not surrender the polis entrusted to him to the Athenians so its inhabitants would not be exposed to retaliation (Thuc. 5,21; 34). Unimpressed by the instructions of the leading committees in Sparta he instigated considerable new tensions between Sparta and Athens.  Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apoikia

(992 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποικία; apoikía). Settlement of a group of colonists or their descendants outside the territory of a particular mother city ( Metropolis); the latter having sent out a proportion of its citizens as ‘emigrants’ (ἄποικοι, ápoikoi) to found a ‘colony’, or even encouraged the citizens of other poleis to take part in a new foundation. The leader of the undertaking was usually an oikist nominated by the mother city. Especially during the great period of ‘Greek colonization’ of c. 750-550/500 BC, many new communities arose, often being autonomous poleis which could be r…

Brasidas

(584 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρασίδας; Brasídas). Son of the respected Spartiate Tellis, who was one of those who took the oath sealing the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC (Thuc. 2,25; 5,19; 24).B. distinguished himself right at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War when he freed the Messenian coastal city of Methone which was surrounded by Athenians. That was probably the reason for his appointment in 431/30 as eponymous ephor (Diod. Sic. 12,43,2) and military ‘adviser’ at a relatively young age. In 429 he was adviser to admiral  Cnemus in the so-called second sea battle of Naupactus and…

Astyochus

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀστύοχος; Astýochos). Spartan nauarch in 412/11 BC. In the summer of 412 his attempt to gain Lesbos failed (Thuc. 8,22f.); his operations between Lesbos, Chios, Erythrae and Clazomenae were luckless (8,31-33). Dissatisfied with his administration, Sparta sent ‘advisors’ with extraordinary powers to his headquarters in Milet in the winter of 412/11 (Thuc. 8,39,1f.). After advances as far as Cnidus and Rhodes he signed the third Spartan-Persian contract in the spring of 411, in whic…

Philocharidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Φιλοχαρίδας/ Philocharídas). Spartiate, son of Euryxilaidas, co-signatory of the truce between Sparta and Athens in 423 BC (Thuc. 4,119,2) and the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2). With Ischagoras and Menas [1] he was supposed to instruct Clearidas to hand over Amphipolis by treaty to Athens but the latter opposed this (Thuc. 5,21). In the same year, P. took oaths to the symmachía of Sparta with Athens (Thuc. 5,24,1) and in 420 was a member of a Spartan delegation that was snubbed in Athens through intrigues on the pa…

King's peace

(132 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Term given to the ‘General Peace’ ( koinḕ eirḗnē ) that the Persian Great King Artaxerxes [2] II in effect dictated to the Greeks (Isoc. Or. 4,175f.) in 387/6 BC; also known as the Peace of Antalcidas. The Persian demands that were conveyed to the Greeks in Sardes in the autumn of 387 (Stv II 242) contained a claim to all the poleis in west Asia Minor, Clazomenae and Cyprus. Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros were to belong to Athens ‘as before’; all other Greek states were to b…

Mindarus

(165 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μίνδαρος; Míndaros). A Spartan, naúarchos (fleet commander) in 411/410 BC. In September 411, he set out from Miletus for the Thracian Chersonesus, in order to strike at the most important Athenian supply route, but was defeated soon afterwards at Cynossema by a smaller Athenian fleet under Thrasybulus [3] (Thuc. 8,99-107), as well as in a second battle at Abydus [1] (Oct./Nov. 411), after Alcibiades [3] unexpectedly led reinforcements to the Athenian forces (Xen. Hell. 1,1,2-7; Diod.…

Archidamus

(680 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρχίδαμος; Archídamos). [German version] [1] II. Spartan king (ca. 475-427 BC) II., Spartan king, Eurypontid, grandson and successor of Leotychidas II, who went into exile in Tegea after a failed campaign in Thessaly (476/75 BC?) and died there in 469 (Paus. 3,7,10). It remains uncertain if A. already became king in 476/75 or only in 469. After the great earthquake of 464 he forcefully defended Sparta against an attack by the  Helots (Diod. Sic. 11,63,4-641; Plut. Cimon 16) and apparently proved himself i…

Chilon

(452 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χίλων; Chílōn). [German version] [1] Spartan politician, 6th cent. BC From Sparta; son of Damagetus; owing to his leading role in the politics of Sparta (ephor c. 556 BC), in the middle of the 6th cent. he became first ephor (Sosicrates FHG IV 502 [1]); also ascribed to him was the strengthening of the ephorate in relation to the kings (Diog. Laert. 1,68). Owing to his elegiac poetry and his wisdom he was counted among the ‘Seven Sages’ of archaic Greece (Pl. Prt. 343a; Diog. Laert. 1,68-73). Rylands papyrus 18 (= FGrH …

Pedaritus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πεδάριτος; Pedáritos). A Spartan, harmost in 412/1 BC (Harmostai[1]) in Chios, which had seceded from Athens and which he defended against Athenian attacks. Having brutally eliminated Athenian supporters in the process, he had an action brought against him by the Chians in Sparta (Thuc. 8,28,3; 32-33; 38-40; cf. Isocr. Or. 6,53; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 8). He fell in an attack on Athenian siege troops (Thuc. 8,55,3). His successor will presumably have been his father Leon [3]. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Xenias

(214 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ξενίας; Xenías). [German version] [1] Arcadian from Parrhasia, mercenary leader of Cyrus [3] the Younger, c. 400 BC Arcadian from Parrhasia; as a mercenary leader in 405/4 BC he accompanied Cyrus [3] the Younger to the court of the Persian king and later took a large number of mercenaries to him in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,1,2; 2,1-3), but, together with Pasion [1] from Megara, left Cyrus' army in Syria without taking his family, which Cyrus sent after him (Xen. An. 1,4,6-8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Elis, pro-Spartan oligarch, c. 400 BC Rich Elean (Elis [2]), próx…

Phylarchos

(247 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(φύλαρχος/ phýlarchos, 'chief' of a phylḗ [1]). [German version] [1] Greek office In many Greek poleis the phýlarchoi were leaders of phylaí with high advisory or magisterial functions: in Epidamnus phyle leaders also formed the advisory board of the leading official ( árchōn) and were replaced in the 5th century BC in this function by a council with a broader basis (Aristot. Pol. 1301b 22f.); in Cyzicus phýlarchoi acted as a college and together with the highest civil and military officials ( stratēgoí) there carried out high magisterial functions [1. no. 59 with comm.]; the…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Areus

(225 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρεύς; Areús). [German version] [1] Spartan king 309 - approx. 265 BC Spartan king 309 -- approx. 265 BC, Agiad, son of  Acrotatus [1], attempted in 281 to exploit the defeat of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas by  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus to liberate Hellas from Macedonian rule in alliance with the Peloponnesian communities, but was defeated by the Aetolians, who were allied with Antigonus (Just. Epit. 24,1,5 f.). Returning from battles in Crete in 272, he saved Sparta in alliance with Antigonus from the attack of  Pyrr…
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