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Hirtia

(98 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Sister of  Hirtius. In 46 BC she was evidently offered by her brother to Cicero as a possible wife after his divorce from Terentia. Cicero declined on the grounds that marriage and philosophy are incompatible (Hieron. Adversus Iovinianum 1,48), and married the young and rich Publilia. H. is probably alluded to in a letter written by Cicero (Att. 12,11) dated November 46 BC, in which he informs Atticus that he had never seen anything so ugly ( nihil vidi foedius). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography J. Kerschensteiner, Cicero und Hirtius, in: FS S. Lauffer, vol. 2,…

Actorius

(44 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] A. Naso, M., author of a work about  Caesar and his time. This work was obviously directed against Caesar, accused him of participating in the so-called first Catiline conspiracy and also contained gossip (Suet. Iul. 9,3; 52,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Ariovistus

(676 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] King of a Germanic people. Plin. HN 2,170 calls him (without explicitly mentioning the name A.) rex Sueborum, Mela 3,45 rex Botorum (= Nep. F 29), Caes. B. Gall. 1,31,10 and Front. Strat. 2,1,16 rex Germanorum and Liv. per. 104 dux. The Roman terms are imprecise (the term Suebi was only a collective designation for Germanic tribes on the right Rhine bank, the Boti are unknown), maybe A. was a ruler of the Triboci, who lived in Alsace and the Palatinate [2. 510: Tribocorum instead of Botorum]. Our knowledge depends almos…

Hegesaretus

(45 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Ἡγησάρετος; Hēgēsáretos). Thessalian from Larissa, described as princeps civitatis by Cicero in a letter of recommendation from the year 46 BC (Fam. 13,25). Leader of the Pompeian factio in Thessaly (Caes. B Civ. 3,35,2). Presumably pardoned by Caesar. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Tolmides

(118 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Τολμίδης/ Tolmídēs). Son of Tolmaeus, Athenian stratēgós in the years 457-455, 452, 451, 448 and 447 BC [1. 75 ff.]. After the murder of Ephialtes [2], in the 450s T. became the most important democratic politician and exponent of an aggressive naval league policy (Delian League). T.' often assumed political independence from Pericles [1] is an anachronism (cf. Plut. Pericles 16,3). In 456/5, T. commanded a successful naval operation against the Peloponnese (Thuc. 1,108), in 447 he settled Attic klēroûchoi on Euboea, Naxos and probably …

Allienus

(78 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] From 61 to 59 BC legate of Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,1,10), in 55 tribunus plebis (MRR 2, 217), in 49 praetor (Cic. Fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In this function he supported  Caesar during his African campaign in January 46 with troops (Bell. Afr. 34,4). In 44/43 he was first legate of Trebonius, then of Dolabella (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Furfanius Postumus, T.

(65 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] In 52 BC, judge in the case against Annius [I 14] Milo (Cic. Mil. 75) regarding the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Praetor perhaps already in 55 or earlier ([1. 268f.]; MRR 2,295: 46 [?]), promagistrate in Sicily 50-49, proconsul there as well in 45 (MRR 3,96). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, The lex annalis under Caesar, in: Phoenix 25, 1971, 246-271.

Proteas

(178 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Πρωτέας/ Prōtéas). Son of Andronicus, Macedonian, probably the same as P., the son of Lanice, nurse of Alexander [4] the Great. In 334/3 BC, by order of Antipater [1] he gathered ships off Euboea and the Peloponnese to protect the islands and mainland. In early summer 333, he succeeded in surprising a Persian forward unit under Datames off the island of Siphnos and capturing eight of its ten ships (Arr. Anab. 2,2,4-5). To do so, P. covered over 120 nautical miles in two night sail…

Bucilianus

(38 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Participant in the conspiracy against Caesar (App. B Civ. 2,474; 493). Briefly mentioned in Cicero (Att. 16,4,4; 15,17,2) in connection with his plans to flee in the summer of 44 BC. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Hirtius, Aulus

(470 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] H.'s early career is shrouded in mystery. He probably served as a legate in Gallia from c. 54 (Cic. Fam. 16,27,1-2). He became a devoted follower of Caesar, to whom he owed his further advancement (Cic. Phil. 13,24). In 49 he accompanied Caesar to Spain, in 47 he stayed with him in Antioch; apart from that he defended Caesar's interests in Rome. The office of people's tribune in 48 is not certain. His introduction of a law aimed against the followers of Pompey ( rogatio Hirtia, CIL I2 2,604), later to be abolished (Cic. Phil. 13,32), must fall into the year 46, when…

Iccius

(54 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Ruler of the  Remi ( primus civitatis), allied with Rome since 57 BC; in the same year, as he was in command of Bibrax, he held the city against an assault by the Belgae until the arrival of assistance from Rome (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,1; 6,4; 7,1).  Caesar Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Vercingetorix

(616 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Celt from the people of the Arverni, born in c. 82 BC. His father Celtillus, whom the Romans considered the 'first man' ( princeps) in all of Gaul, was - like Arminius - murdered by members of his tribe, because he aspired to be king (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,1). Knowledge of V. is concentrated entirely on the year 52 BC; the main source, Caesar (= C.), is problematic, because he personalizes the Celtic resistance in V. and does not confront V. without Roman prejudices when recognizing his military performanc…

Paralus

(47 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Πάραλος; Páralos). [German version] [1] Son of Pericles Son of Pericles [1] from his first marriage. He died of the plague in 430/429 BC (Plut. Pericles 36,8). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] (Athenian ship of state), see Salaminia (Athenian ship of state) see Salaminia

Lysicles

(112 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Λυσικλῆς; Lysiklês). L. was a friend of Pericles and like the latter supported aggressive Athenian policy in relation to Sparta (Aristoph. Equ. 765: predecessor of Cleon). A L. was (in 432 BC ?) the petitioner for a decree regarding naval weapons and regarding Apollo of Delos (IG I2 128 l. 3; supplements in SEG 21, 37, IG I3 130a). After 429 BC, L. married Pericles' widow Aspasia (Plut. Pericles 24), in 428/7 as a strategos he fell in battle in Caria (Thuc. 3,19,1f.). Aristophanes has him appear in the ‘Equites’ as a small cattle wholesaler (Aristoph. Equ. 132 with schol.). Wil…

Bucilianus

(32 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] Teilnehmer an der Verschwörung gegen Caesar (App. civ. 2,474; 493). Kurze Erwähnung bei Cicero (Att. 16,4,4; 15,17,2) im Zusammenhang mit Fluchtplänen im Sommer 44 v.Chr. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Hirtia

(94 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] Schwester des Hirtius, die Cicero im Jahre 46 v.Chr. nach der Scheidung von Terentia offenbar von ihrem Bruder als Ehefrau angetragen wurde. Cicero lehnte mit der Begründung, Ehe und Philosophie vertrügen sich nicht (Hieron. adv. Iovinianum 1,48), ab und heiratete die junge und reiche Publilia. Vermutlich bezieht sich auch ein Brief Ciceros (Att. 12,11) vom Nov. 46 auf H., in dem er Atticus mitteilte, er habe noch nie etwas Häßlicheres gesehen ( nihil vidi foedius). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography J. Kerschensteiner, Cicero und Hirtius, in: FS S. Lauffer,…

Furfanius Postumus, T.

(59 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] 52 v.Chr. Richter im Prozeß gegen Annius [I 14] Milo (Cic. Mil. 75) wegen der Ermordung des Clodius [I 4]. Praetor möglicherweise bereits 55 oder früher ([1. 268f.]; MRR 2,295: 46 [?]), Promagistrat in Sizilien 50-49, Proconsul ebendort 45 (MRR 3,96). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 G.V. Sumner, The lex annalis under Caesar, in: Phoenix 25, 1971, 246-271.

Iccius

(44 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] Fürst der seit 57 v.Chr. mit Rom verbündeten Remi ( primus civitatis), hielt im selben J. als Kommandant von Bibrax die Stadt bis zum Eintreffen röm. Hilfe gegen einen Angriff der Belger (Caes. Gall. 2,3,1; 6,4; 7,1). Caesar Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Paralos

(41 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Πάραλος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Perikles [1] Sohn des Perikles [1] aus erster Ehe. Er starb 430/429 v.Chr. an der Pest (Plut. Perikles 36,8). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] (athen. Staatsschiff) s. Salaminia (athenisches Staatsschiff) s. Salaminia

Hegesaretos

(40 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] (Ἡγησάρετος). Thessalier aus Larissa, von Cicero in einem Empfehlungsschreiben aus dem Jahr 46 v.Chr. als princeps civitatis bezeichnet (fam. 13,25). Führer der pompeianischen factio in Thessalien (Caes. civ. 3,35,2). Von Caesar vermutlich begnadigt. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Proteas

(176 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] (Πρωτέας). Sohn des Andronikos, Makedone, wohl mit P., dem Sohn der Lanike, der Amme Alexandros' [4] d.Gr., zu identifizieren. Er sammelte 334/3 v. Chr. auf Befehl des Antipatros [1] in Euboia und auf der Peloponnes Schiffe zum Schutz der Inseln und des Festlandes. Im Frühsommer 333 gelang es ihm, ein persisches Vorkommando unter Datames bei der Insel Siphnos zu überraschen und acht der zehn Schiffe zu kapern (Arr. an. 2,2,4-5). P. legte dabei in zwei Nachtfahrten über 120 Seemei…

Hirtius, Aulus

(434 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] Die anfängliche Karriere des H. liegt im dunkeln. Wahrscheinlich diente er ab ca. 54 v.Chr. als Legat in Gallien (Cic. fam. 16,27,1-2). Er entwickelte sich zu einem unbedingten Gefolgsmann Caesars, dem er schließlich auch seinen weiteren Aufstieg verdankte (Cic. Phil. 13,24). 49 begleitete er Caesar nach Spanien, 47 weilte er bei ihm in Antiocheia, ansonsten vertrat er dessen Interessen in Rom. Das Volkstribunat von 48 ist nicht gesichert, ein von ihm eingebrachtes, später aufgehobenes Gesetz (Cic. Phil. 13,32), das sich gegen die Anhänger des Pompeius richtete ( r…

Ariovistus

(633 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] König eines german. Volkes. Plin. nat. 2,170 nennt ihn (ohne daß der Name A. explizit fällt) rex Sueborum, Mela 3,45 rex Botorum (= Nep. F 29), Caes. Gall. 1,31,10 bzw. Front. strat. 2,1,16 rex Germanorum und Liv. per. 104 dux. Die röm. Bezeichnungen sind unbestimmt (der Begriff Sueben war nur Sammelbezeichnung für rechtsrheinische Germanenstämme, die Boti sind unbekannt), vielleicht war A. Fürst der im Elsaß bzw. der Pfalz anzusiedelnden Triboker [2. 510: Tribocorum statt Botorum]. Unsere Kenntnisse beruhen fast auss…

Allienus

(73 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] 61 - 59 v. Chr. Legat des Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. ad Q. fr. 1,1,10), 55 Volkstribun (MRR 2, 217), 49 praetor (Cic. fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In dieser Funktion unterstützte er Caesar während des afrikanischen Feldzuges im Jan. 46 mit Truppen (Bell. Afr. 34,4). 44/43 war er zunächst Legat des Trebonius, dann Dolabellas (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Actorius

(42 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] A. Naso, M., Verf. eines Werkes über Caesar bzw. seine Zeit. Es war offenbar gegen diesen gerichtet, beschuldigte ihn der Teilnahme an der sog. 1. Catilinarischen Verschwörung und enthielt auch Klatschgeschichten (Suet. Iul. 9,3; 52,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Lysikles

(97 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] (Λυσικλῆς). L. war ein Freund des Perikles und wie dieser Vertreter einer offensiven athen. Politik gegenüber Sparta (Aristoph. Equ. 765: Kleon-Vorgänger). Ein L. war (432 v.Chr. ?) Antragsteller eines Dekrets über Seerüstungen bzw. über den Apollon von Delos (IG I2 128 Z. 3; Ergänzungen in SEG 21, 37, IG I3 130a). Nach 429 v.Chr. heiratete L. Perikles' Witwe Aspasia (Plut. Perikles 24), 428/7 fiel er als Stratege in Karien (Thuk. 3,19,1f.). Aristophanes läßt ihn in den ‘Rittern als Kleinvieh(groß)händler auftreten (Aristoph. Equ. 132 mit schol.). Will, Wolfgang …

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Calidius

(260 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested in Rome from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze, 138; ThlL, Onom. 81f.). [German version] [1] C., M. Mint master in 117 or 116 BC Mint master in 117 or 116 BC (RRC 284), perhaps later praetor or propraetor (IG VII 18, Z. 14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Praetor in 57 BC Praetor in 57 BC; as such he supported Cicero's return from exile (Cic. P. Red. Sen. 22), and on this occasion probably gave the speech De domo Ciceronis (Quint. Inst. 10,1,23). In 52 BC, he took up the cause of T. Annius [I 14] Milo, the murderer of  Clodius Pulc…

Thucydides

(2,974 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | S.HO.
(Θουκυδίδης/ Thoukydídēs). [German version] [1] Son-in-law of Cimon [2], 5th cent. BC Son of Melesias, son-in-law of Cimon [2] (Schol. Aristid. 46), Athenian politician from the Alopece deme. Represented the oligarchs from the mid-450s, at least from 449. Plutarch made him the embodiment of the political forces opposing Pericles [1] (Plut. Pericles 6,2 f.; 8,5; 11; 14; Fab. Max. 30,2). T. attacked Athenian building policies, because, being linked with a social welfare and employment programme, they strength…

Dracontides

(167 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης; Drakontídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, son of Leogoras from the deme Thorae; in 446/5 BC epistátēs, in 433/2 stratēgós and in that capacity one of the commanders of a relief fleet for Cercyra in the autumn of 433 (cf. Thuc. 1,51,4; on the corruption of the text at that point see [1. 95]). D. was a bitter opponent of Pericles and in 430 aided in his removal (Plut. Pericles 32,3) [2]. Davies 4551. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 S. Hornblower, Commentary 1, 1991 2 F. J. Frost, Pericles and Dracontides, in: JHS 84, …

Carrinas

(416 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name, presumably of Etruscan origin (in Greek also Καρείνας, Καρρείνας; Kareínas, Karreínas), reliably attested from the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Follower of Marius Follower of Marius, in the Civil War sent to Picenum against  Pompeius in 83 BC (Plut. Pompeius 7); he was praetor in 82 BC , and suffered a number of defeats in northern and central Italy. After the flight of the consul Cn.  Papirius Carbo to Africa, the remaining Marian military leaders united their troops with the Samn…

Bogudes

(237 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Ruler of east Mauretania, 81 BC Son of and successor to  Bocchus I, ruler of east Mauretania as far as the Mulucha. The mariner  Eudoxus of Cyzicus paid a call on him (Posidonius in Str. 2,3,4). In 81 BC B. sided with  Pompeius, who was campaigning against the supporters of Marius at Sulla's behest, against  Hiarbas, of Numidia (Oros. 5,21,14; Plut. Pompon. 12) [1. 67-68; 2. 266-274].  Hiempsal Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 M.-R. Alföldi, Die Gesch. des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H. G. Horn, C. B. Rüger (ed.), Die Nu…

Aurunculeius

(268 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian gentile name (extension of Aurunceius, ThlL 2,1532f. [1. 354]); there are records of the family in Rome from the 3rd cent. BC, but they ceased to have any significance during the imperial time. [German version] [1] A., C. Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 (MRR 1,285; 291). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., L. Praetor urbanus in 190 BC Praetor urbanus in 190 BC; amongst those sent to reorganize the situation in Asia Minor in 189 (MRR 1, 356; 363). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Ampius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] C., praef. socium 201 BC C., praef. socium 201 BC (Liv. 31,2,5-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Balbus, T., Praetor 59 BC, historian Balbus, T., tribunus plebis 63 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,40,4), praetor 59, finally procos. in Asia (MRR 2, 197). After his return he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulate in 55 (schol. Bob. 156St.), in the Civil War he fought on the side of Pompey ( Pompeius), for whom he had already as tribunus plebis especially applied himself and who therefore had supported him when he ran for con…

Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Choregos and strategos in Athens about 415 BC Choregos and strategos in Athens. The brother of  Nicias. In 415 BC accused of the mutilation of the Herms but released (And. 1,47; 66). In 412/1 in Thrace as strategos. In 405/4 again strategos, he resisted together with other generals the peace terms negotiated by Theramenes during the blockade of Athens and, therefore,…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Pericles

(2,303 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Περικλῆς; Periklês). [German version] [1] Athenian Politician Athenian politician. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] A. Descent and early career P. was probably born between 495 and 490 as the son of Agariste [2] (according to Hdt. 6,131, she dreamt that she would bear a lion), a member of the Alcmaeonid family, and Xanthippus. P. had two sons (Xanthippus and Paralus [1]) from his first marriage and a third son P. from his union with the Milesian Aspasia [2]. Later tradition numbered Anaxagoras [2], Zeno of …

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Fundanius

(320 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Widespread Roman plebeian gentes name (Schulze 357, 533, 542). [German version] [1] F., C. Plebeian tribune in 68 BC Plebeian tribune in 68 BC (?), one of the originators of the lex Antonia de Termessibus (Roman Statutes 1, 1996, no. 19), at the same time curator viarum (ILLRP 465a). Probably identical to C.F. who was defended by Cicero in 66 or 65 (Q. Cic. comm. petitionis 19) and is still mentioned in 59 (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,10). He was probably also the father-in-law of the antiquarian M. Terentius  Varro, who introduces him as a dialogue partner in de re rustica (1,2,1 et passim). Elvers, Karl-…

Aristius

(95 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name (ThLL 2,646 f.) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M., military tribune 52 BC A., M., military tribune in Caesar's army during the Gallic uprising of 52 BC (Caes. B. Gall. 7,42,5; 43,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Fuscus, poet and grammaticus (1st cent. BC) A., Fuscus, poet and grammaticus, close friend and critic of  Horatius, who dedicated Carm. 1,22 and Epist. 1,10 to him. Sat. 1,9,61-74 shows his sense of humour. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. G. M. Nisbet, M. Hubbard, A Commentary on Horace: Odes, Book 1…

Duronius

(202 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, from Durnius (Schulze, 160; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] D., C. Friend of Annius Milo, 1st cent. BC Friend ( amicissimus) of Annius [I 14] Milo, whom he helped during or after his trial for the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Cic. Att. 5,8,2f. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] D., L. Praetor in Apulia 181 BC 181 BC praetor in Apulia. When Tarentum and Brundisium complained about piracy, he received the praetorship of Istria additionally, and thus probably the task of protecting the Adriatic coast …

Caesar

(5,998 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
I. Historical [German version] A. Youth and early career C. Iulius Caesar was born in 100 BC on the 13th of Quintilis (from 44 BC: Iulius/July); his mother was Aurelia, a daughter of L. Aurelius Cotta ( cos. 119 BC; [1. 327]). His father became praetor in 92 BC, and died 85 BC. Nothing is known of C.'s childhood and early youth. As it was the custom for the Roman aristocracy, C., too, presumably spent his first years in the care of his mother, followed between the ages of 7 and 15 by elementary schooling and grammatical tuition (G…

Ancharius

(125 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Q., praetor 56 BC Q., 73 BC legate in Greece (Syll.3 748), 65 (?) proquaestor in Macedonia (IvOl 328). As tribune of the people, 59 he opposed the politics of the consul  Caesar together with his colleague Bibulus (Cic. Sest. 113; Vatin. 16; Cass. Dio 38,6,1: schol. Bob. 135, 146St.). After the praetorship of 56 followed the proconsulate in Maedonia (Cic. Fam. 13,40) Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. Rufus (1st half of 1st cent. BC) C., Rufus from Fulginae, accuser (?) of L. Varenus c. 80 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Priscus (1st …

Aristius

(102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Röm. Familienname (ThLL 2,646 f.) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] , M., Militärtribun 52 v. Chr. A., M., Militärtribun in Caesars Heer während des gallischen Aufstandes von 52 v. Chr. (Caes. Gall. 7,42,5; 43,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] Fuscus, Dichter und Grammaticus, 1. Jh. v. Chr. A., Fuscus, Dichter und grammaticus, enger Freund und Kritiker des Horaz, der an ihn carm. 1,22 und epist. 1,10 gerichtet hat. Sat. 1,9,61-74 zeigt seinen Sinn für Humor. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. G. M. Nisbet, M. Hubbard, A Commentary on H…

Carrinas

(351 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Röm. Gentilname, vermutlich etr. Herkunft (griech. auch Καρείνας, Καρρείνας), seit dem 1.Jh. v.Chr. sicher belegt (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] C., C. Militär unter Marius Marianer, im Bürgerkrieg 83 v.Chr. gegen Pompeius nach Picenum gesandt (Plut. Pompeius 7); als praetor 82 wurde er in Ober- und Mittel-It. mehrfach geschlagen. Nach der Flucht des Konsuls Cn. Papirius Carbo nach Afrika vereinigten die verbliebenen Heerführer der Marianer ihre Truppen mit den Samniten, zogen gegen Rom und wurden a…

Duronius

(195 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeischer Familienname, aus Durnius (Schulze, 160; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [1] D., C. Freund des Annius Milo, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Freund ( amicissimus) des Annius [I 14] Milo, dem er während bzw. nach dem Prozeß wegen der Ermordung des Clodius [I 4] behilflich war. Cic. Att. 5,8,2f. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] D., L. Praetor in Apulien 181 v. Chr. 181 v.Chr. praetor in Apulien. Als sich Tarent und Brundisium über Seeräuberei beklagten, erhielt er die Praetur Istriens hinzu und damit augenscheinlich die Aufgab…

Caesar

(5,008 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
I. Historisch [English version] A. Jugend und frühe Karriere C. Iulius Caesar wurde 100 v.Chr. am 13. Quintilis (seit 44: Iulius/Juli) als Sohn der Aurelia, einer Tochter des L. Aurelius Cotta ( cos. 119; [1. 327]) geboren. Sein Vater erreichte im Jahre 92 die Praetur und starb 85. Über C.s Kindheit und frühe Jugend ist nichts bekannt. Vermutlich verbrachte er, wie in Roms Aristokratie üblich, die ersten Jahre in der Obhut der Mutter, im Alter zwischen 7 und 15 folgten Elementar- und Grammatikunterricht (griech. und lat. Lit.…

Caninius

(372 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeischer Gentilname, bezeugt seit dem 2.Jh. v.Chr. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [English version] [1] C. Gallus, L. Volkstribun 56 v.Chr. Volkstribun 56 v.Chr., wollte erfolglos die Wiedereinsetzung des Ptolemaios Auletes in Ägypten durchführen lassen (MRR 2,209). 56 wurde er von Cicero verteidigt (fam. 7,1,4), war 51 in Athen häufig mit ihm zusammen und besuchte ihn 46 in Rom. Er starb 44. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul 37 v.Chr. Sohn von C. 1, Konsul 37 v.Chr. mit M. Vipsanius Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (B…

Bogudes

(214 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] [1] Herrscher Ostmauretaniens, 81 v. Chr. Sohn und Nachfolger Bocchus' I., Herrscher Ostmauretaniens bis zum Mulucha. Der Seefahrer Eudoxos von Kyzikos suchte ihn auf (Poseidonios bei Strab. 2,3,4). 81 v.Chr. nahm B. Partei gegen Hiarbas von Numidien zugunsten des Pompeius, der in Sullas Auftrag die Marianer in Afrika bekämpfte (Oros. 5,21,14; Plut. Pomp. 12) [1. 67-68; 2. 266-274]. Hiempsal Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 M.-R. Alföldi, Die Gesch. des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H.G. Horn, C.B. Rüger (Hrsg.), Die…
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