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Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), N. was tyrant of Zelia. He is identical with the N. mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 4,48), a contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's and possibly tyrant by the grace of Darius [3] III [1. 229]. N. fell from power after the battle on the Granicus (in this context possibly Syll.3 279,7) and the town of Zelia apologized to Alexander (Arr. Anab. 1,17,2). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 H.G. Lolling, Mi…

Antyllus

(426 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄντυλλος; Ántyllos). [German version] [1] Grammarian and rhetor of unknown time Grammarian and rhetorician of unknown time (Suda). He authored a biography of Thucydides, which was used by Marcellinus in his Thucydides-Vita (22, 36, 55), and a commentary to Thucydides, which was used and quoted in a number of scholia (to 1,2,3; 3,95,1; 4,19,1 and 28,2). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography F. Goslings, Observationes ad Sch. in Thuc., 1874, 54 ff. R. Tosi, Scolifantasma tucididei, 1983. [German version] [2] Greek physician and surgeon of the imperial period Greek p…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Himerius

(810 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] A. Life From his own speeches and other sources (Lib., Eun. Vit. Soph. 14 (494), Suda) the following emerges: Greek rhetor from Prusias in Bithynia, c. AD 320 until after 383, son of the rhetor Aminias. After studying in Athens until the beginning of the 340s, H. first worked as a teacher of rhetoric in Constantinople (343-352). One of several journeys undertaken at this time took him to Nicomedia (around 350), where he lost to  Libanius in an oratory competition (Lib. Ep. 742,1F = 654W; Libanius' speech …

Genethlius

(162 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Γενέθλιος; Genéthlios). Greek rhetor from Petra, a pupil of Minocianus and Agapetus, 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD. He taught in Athens in rivalry to Callinicus, and died there aged 28. He wrote epideictic orations and was praised for his talent and his astounding memory (Suda s.v.). The fact that he is mentioned four times in the Schol. Demosth. (18,8; 52; 19,148; 22,3) supports the assumption that G. had written a commentary on that rhetor. Two treatises on the classification of …

Cocondrius

(99 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κοκόνδριος; Kokóndrios). Greek rhetor of undetermined date (probably Byzantine); a slim treatise on tropes ( trópoi) is extant. These are at the beginning systematically divided into three groups ( génē), namely trópoi referring to an individual word (e.g. onomatopoeia), to the whole sentence (e.g. allegory), or to both (e.g. hyperbaton). In elaboration C. does not adhere strictly to this system but deals with other types as well. For example, poets are quoted exclusively: Homer, as well as Alcaeus, the tragedians, and Theoc.  Style, figures of style;  trope Weißen…

Anonymus Seguerianus

(127 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Designation for the author of a rhetorical treatise from the 5th cent., publicized in 1840 by Séguier de St.-Brisson. For a time, the treatise had been falsely attributed to L. Annaeus Cornutus. This work is the epitome of a school book from the 2nd cent. AD (definitely prior to Hermogenes), which is predominantly based upon  Alexander [II 25],  Neocles and ( Valerius) Harpocration. The subject matter is the 4  partes orationis and also the 4   officia oratoris . It is an important source for the controversy between Theodoreans ( Theodor…

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Anaximenes

(648 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἀναχιμένης; Anaximénēs). [German version] [1] Nature philosopher, 6th cent. BC Nature philosopher of 6th cent. BC, last representative of the  Milesian School. Although the arche (ἀρχή; archḗ) is unlimited with A. as with  Anaximander, it is specified as air. Air envelops the world, and a part of this is a component of the world. A. developed the first, still rudimentary theory of metamorphosis: in densifying (πύκνωσις; pýknōsis) and ephemeralizing processes (μάνωσις [ mánōsis] or ἀραίωσις [ araíōsis]) air and the various substances change into each other, in this sequ…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Alciphron

(225 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀλκίφρων; Alkíphrōn). Atticist author, probably from the 2nd or the early 3rd cent. AD [5], mentioned only by Aristaen. 1,5. 25 and Eust. 762,62. Preserved under A.'s name is a collection of 122 fictitious letters (only partial fragments), organized into letters by: 1. fishermen, 2. peasants, 3. parasites, 4. love letters. All letters are set in a timeless and idealized 4th-cent. Attica, perhaps modelled after the New Comedy [10], possibly but not clearly an imitation of Lucian [8…

Aristaenetus

(235 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀρισταίνετος; Aristaínetos). Accepted name for the author of a collection of love letters in two books, probably from the 1st quarter of the 6th cent. AD. In reality, A. is the sender of the first extant letter, but in the beginning of the MS at least one folio is missing and so is the name of the real author. A.'s models are mainly Plato, Menander, Lucian, Alciphron, Philostratus, and the authors of the novels and love elegies by  Callimachus (Aristain. 1,10. 15), whose content c…

Lycoleon

(113 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, known only because of a mention in Aristot. Rh. 1411b 6f.: a speech of L. for the defence of the strategos Chabrias is cited in which a statue erected in honour of the latter is metaphorically called hiketēría (olive branch wound around with wool as a symbol of one beseeching protection). (On the shape of this statue and the reasons for its erection, cf. Nep. Chabrias 1-3 and Diod. Sic. 15,33,4). The trial (it concerned treason in connection with battles for the Attic-Boeotian border fortre…

Rhetorica ad Alexandrum

(419 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Greek rhetoric textbook, amounting to some 100 pages of modern print, recorded in the MSS (none earlier than the 14th cent.) as a work of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]), but not appearing in the ancient title lists of the Corpus Aristotelicum (e.g. in Diog. Laert. 5,22-27). The earliest surviving attribution to Aristotle is by Syrianus (In Hermog. comm. 2, p. 11,17-21 Rabe). According to Quint. Inst. 3,4,9, Anaximenes [2] of Lampsacus (2nd half 4th cent. BC) distinguished types of speech (εἴδη/ eídē) in his rhetorical textbook ( téchnē); the same distinction occurs at…
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