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Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Ariovistus

(676 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] King of a Germanic people. Plin. HN 2,170 calls him (without explicitly mentioning the name A.) rex Sueborum, Mela 3,45 rex Botorum (= Nep. F 29), Caes. B. Gall. 1,31,10 and Front. Strat. 2,1,16 rex Germanorum and Liv. per. 104 dux. The Roman terms are imprecise (the term Suebi was only a collective designation for Germanic tribes on the right Rhine bank, the Boti are unknown), maybe A. was a ruler of the Triboci, who lived in Alsace and the Palatinate [2. 510: Tribocorum instead of Botorum]. Our knowledge depends almos…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Aurelius

(2,999 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium (ThlL 2,1482-87), which in ancient etymology is derived from Sabine and was derived via the older form Auselius from sol (sun) (Fest. p. 22; from this the modern derivation from the Sabine * ausel over Etruscan usil ‘Sun god’, cf. [1. 36; 2. 468]). The family attained noble status in the 1st Punic War with Aur. [3] and provides numerous consuls in the 2nd cent. BC from the branches of the Cottae, Orestae and Scauri. This, however, does not completely explain the building stages and assignment of various viae Aureliae in the 2nd cent. [3; 4]. The late R…

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Allienus

(78 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] From 61 to 59 BC legate of Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,1,10), in 55 tribunus plebis (MRR 2, 217), in 49 praetor (Cic. Fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In this function he supported  Caesar during his African campaign in January 46 with troops (Bell. Afr. 34,4). In 44/43 he was first legate of Trebonius, then of Dolabella (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Aemilius

(4,870 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Nomen gentile Name of a very old patrician line (more often written Aimilius), after which the tribus Aemilia, one of the oldest rustic tribes, is also named. Republican pseudo-genealogy traced the gens back to Mamercus, said to be the son of Pythagoras or of Numa, or to Trojan ancestors: Aemilia, a daughter of Aeneas; Aimylos, a son of Ascanius; or to King Amulius himself (Plut. Aemilius 2; Numa 8; Romulus 2; Fest. 22 L; Sil. Pun. 8,294-296) [1]. The Aemilii belonged to one of the most respected lines in the R…

Arrius

(618 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin gentile name of Italian origin. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Made fun of by Catull (Carm. 84) due to affected pronunciation. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., C. Neighbour of Cicero Neighbour of Cicero at his Formianum (Cic. Att. 2.14.2; 15.3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] A., L. City praetor of Cales City praetor of Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor in 73 BC Praetor in 73 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-423. …

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Furfanius Postumus, T.

(65 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] In 52 BC, judge in the case against Annius [I 14] Milo (Cic. Mil. 75) regarding the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Praetor perhaps already in 55 or earlier ([1. 268f.]; MRR 2,295: 46 [?]), promagistrate in Sicily 50-49, proconsul there as well in 45 (MRR 3,96). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, The lex annalis under Caesar, in: Phoenix 25, 1971, 246-271.

Proteas

(178 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Πρωτέας/ Prōtéas). Son of Andronicus, Macedonian, probably the same as P., the son of Lanice, nurse of Alexander [4] the Great. In 334/3 BC, by order of Antipater [1] he gathered ships off Euboea and the Peloponnese to protect the islands and mainland. In early summer 333, he succeeded in surprising a Persian forward unit under Datames off the island of Siphnos and capturing eight of its ten ships (Arr. Anab. 2,2,4-5). To do so, P. covered over 120 nautical miles in two night sail…

Fundanius

(320 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Widespread Roman plebeian gentes name (Schulze 357, 533, 542). [German version] [1] F., C. Plebeian tribune in 68 BC Plebeian tribune in 68 BC (?), one of the originators of the lex Antonia de Termessibus (Roman Statutes 1, 1996, no. 19), at the same time curator viarum (ILLRP 465a). Probably identical to C.F. who was defended by Cicero in 66 or 65 (Q. Cic. comm. petitionis 19) and is still mentioned in 59 (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,10). He was probably also the father-in-law of the antiquarian M. Terentius  Varro, who introduces him as a dialogue partner in de re rustica (1,2,1 et passim). Elvers, Karl-…

Annius

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin, in Rome a plebeian gentilicium, which also occurs in Etruscan and Oscan inscriptions [1]. The Etruscan king Anius, after whom the  Anio was supposedly named (Plut. Mor. 315E-F), is a scholarly invention. In Rome Annii were active from the 3rd cent. BC in public life, produced in the 2nd cent. from the family of the Lusci two consuls and were notorious in the 1st cent. because of T.  A. [14] Milo. In the imperial era the name is widespread, various families are present (e.g. cognomina: Bas…

Aristius

(95 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name (ThLL 2,646 f.) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M., military tribune 52 BC A., M., military tribune in Caesar's army during the Gallic uprising of 52 BC (Caes. B. Gall. 7,42,5; 43,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Fuscus, poet and grammaticus (1st cent. BC) A., Fuscus, poet and grammaticus, close friend and critic of  Horatius, who dedicated Carm. 1,22 and Epist. 1,10 to him. Sat. 1,9,61-74 shows his sense of humour. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. G. M. Nisbet, M. Hubbard, A Commentary on Horace: Odes, Book 1…

Bucilianus

(38 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Participant in the conspiracy against Caesar (App. B Civ. 2,474; 493). Briefly mentioned in Cicero (Att. 16,4,4; 15,17,2) in connection with his plans to flee in the summer of 44 BC. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Bogudes

(237 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Ruler of east Mauretania, 81 BC Son of and successor to  Bocchus I, ruler of east Mauretania as far as the Mulucha. The mariner  Eudoxus of Cyzicus paid a call on him (Posidonius in Str. 2,3,4). In 81 BC B. sided with  Pompeius, who was campaigning against the supporters of Marius at Sulla's behest, against  Hiarbas, of Numidia (Oros. 5,21,14; Plut. Pompon. 12) [1. 67-68; 2. 266-274].  Hiempsal Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 M.-R. Alföldi, Die Gesch. des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H. G. Horn, C. B. Rüger (ed.), Die Nu…

Lucilius

(2,458 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Christes, Johannes (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, derived from the first name Lucius [II], widespread from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. The satirical poet L. is the best-known of them. [I 6]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who wanted to protect the latter in 42 BC at Philippi by pretending to be him (App. B Civ. 4,542-545). After that he followed M. Antonius [I 9] with similar loyalty until they both died in the year 30. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., Sex. People's tribune 87 BC, thrown from the Tarpeian rock beca…

Aurunculeius

(268 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian gentile name (extension of Aurunceius, ThlL 2,1532f. [1. 354]); there are records of the family in Rome from the 3rd cent. BC, but they ceased to have any significance during the imperial time. [German version] [1] A., C. Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 (MRR 1,285; 291). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., L. Praetor urbanus in 190 BC Praetor urbanus in 190 BC; amongst those sent to reorganize the situation in Asia Minor in 189 (MRR 1, 356; 363). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Duronius

(202 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, from Durnius (Schulze, 160; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] D., C. Friend of Annius Milo, 1st cent. BC Friend ( amicissimus) of Annius [I 14] Milo, whom he helped during or after his trial for the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Cic. Att. 5,8,2f. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] D., L. Praetor in Apulia 181 BC 181 BC praetor in Apulia. When Tarentum and Brundisium complained about piracy, he received the praetorship of Istria additionally, and thus probably the task of protecting the Adriatic coast …
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