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Dual

(226 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Numerical category, which in contrast to the sg. (singular) and pl. (plural) denotes a (conjugate or accidental) duality. While the dual was used extensively in the Indo-European parent language throughout the whole inflection system for nouns and verbs, in most individual Indo-European languages it survives only in a more rudimentary form. The most extensive dual-system is preserved in Indo-Iranian, whereas in Latin, for example, the only vestiges of dual inflection are to be found in duo < duō ‘two’ and ambō ‘both’ (dat.-abl. duōbus, ambōbus). Dual forms occur …

Numerals

(449 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The basis of the system of numerals ( numeralia) in Indo-European languages is formed by the cardinalia (‘cardinal numbers’, e.g. Latin septem), to which correspond the derived forms of the ordinalia (‘ordinal numbers’, e.g. septimus) and multiplicatives (‘numeral adverbs’, e.g. septiēs). As elementary components of basic vocabulary, the lower cardinals are particularly resistant to replacement by borrowing or neologism and are therefore suited for proof of linguistic affinity. The first four Indo-European cardinal numb…

Anomaly

(184 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Umbrella term for irregularities within a linguistic system. Anomalies within morphology (declension system) often arise through sound shifts; they tend to be removed by  analogy [2]. Thus the Greek-Homeric form Ζῆν, for instance, which as the acc. sing. of Ζεύς  diēus, which goes back to the proto-Indo-Germanic basic language through the effect of the so-called ‘Stang's’ law, could be ‘regularized’ in various ways to produce the form diēm: through ‘paradigmatic equilibrium’ according to the gen./dat. sing., Διός/Διί, the form Διά arose, throug…

Linguistic affinity

(492 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The realization that various languages are genealogically related originated in antiquity. The works of Greek grammarians already show that Latin was not only known to them as a language different from their own but that they also reflected upon the mutual relationship of the two. In fact, the conclusion of Philoxenus [8] - that Latin was descended ‘from the Aeolic dialect of Greek because neither possessed a dual’ (Philoxenus in Hdn., GG 3,2, p. 791, l. 28-30) - was somewhat ak…

Inflection

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Blanket term for all types of differences between forms corresponding to a given stem (lemma). Inflection comprises declension of noun forms (substantive, adjective, and pronoun) and conjugation of verb forms. In the case of inflection various methods come to light that can be classified roughly as affixal and inflectional methods proper. In the Indo-European languages of antiquity, as well as in the modern age, both are represented equally. Affixal methods comprise prefixes (elements placed before), suffixes (elements placed after) and infixes (i…

Language strata

(763 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] I. Overview From a synchronic point of view, ‘language strata’ (LS) represents a cover term for the different forms that a given language takes in its use by individual speakers (idiolect), by speaker groups defined by their social position (sociolect) or by geographically determined speaker communities ( Dialect); from a diachronic point of view, LS refers to the various historical strata of a given language that can be identified on the lexical (inherited and loan vocabulary), grammatical (syntactic or morphological) and phonological levels. The existence of L…

Syncretism

(1,979 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
I. In the context of religious studies [German version] A. General remarks In a religious context, syncretism can be defined as the process of either a peaceable or a contentious mutual permeation of elements taken from two or more traditions [1]. Here 'tradition' is inevitably an ambiguous concept; in considering Antiquity, scholars traditionally distinguish between 'internal syncretism' and 'contact-based syncretism'. 'Internal syncretism' refers to the transfer of manifestations, names and epithets from one deity to another within a single polytheisti…

Analogy

(895 words)

Author(s): Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Philosophical Ἀναλογία, ἀνὰ λόγον ( Analogía, anà lógon) designate originally the mathematical proportion, i.e., the correspondence of numerical or volume relationships (definition: Euc. 5, Def. 5 and 6; 7, Def. 20; Aristot. Eth. Nic. 5,6; 1131 a 6-b9 Poet. 21,11-14; 1457 b 16-30). The teachings about proportions were used in the first instance as a tool to solve problems; it soon developed, however, into a general theoretical construction, which Euclid presented in the fifth book of …

Synkretismus

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L.; Ü:S.KR. | Gippert, Jost
I. Religionswissenschaftlich [English version] A. Allgemeines Im rel. Bereich kann S. als der Prozeß der friedlichen oder strittigen gegenseitigen Durchdringung von Elementen aus zwei oder mehr Traditionen definiert werden [1]. “Trad.” ist hierbei notwendigerweise ein mehrdeutiger Begriff; für die Ant. unterscheidet man herkömmlicherweise zw. “internem S.” und “Kontakt-S.”. Als “interner S.” wird die Übertragung von Erscheinungsformen, Namen und Epitheta von einer Gottheit auf eine andere innerhalb eines einzigen polytheistischen Systems beze…

Analogie

(826 words)

Author(s): Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] philosophisch Ἀναλογία, ἀνὰ λόγον bezeichnen urspr. die mathematische Proportion, d. h. die Gleichheit von Zahlen- oder Größenverhältnissen (Definition: Eukl. elem. 5, Def. 5 und 6; 7, Def. 20; Aristot. eth. Nic. 5,6; 1131 a 6-b9 poet. 21,11-14; 1457 b 16-30). Die Lehre von den Proportionen wurde zunächst als Problemlösungsinstrument benutzt, entwickelte sich jedoch sehr bald zu einer allg. theoretischen Konstruktion, die Euklid im fünften Buch der ›Elemente‹ darstellt. Platon …
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