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Masada

(348 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dead Sea (textual finds) (Greek Μασάδα, Masáda; Hebrew mṣdh, Arabic Tall al-Sab). The name, which is recorded only in Greek and Latin, is probably derived from the Aramaic meṣādā (‘fortress’). It stands in isolation on a rocky plateau on the western shore of the Dead Sea, a rhomboid 600 m north-south and 300 m east-west; 50 m above sea-level with steep cliffs c. 350 m above ground level in the east and c. 150 m in the west. Jos. BI 7,280-294 offers a detailed description,…

Masks

(1,705 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] I. Phoenicia Facial masks and head protomes (also shortened human representations including the neck and shoulder part) are a common type of monument since the 9th/8th cent. BC in the Phoenician-Punic world. They spread from the Levant (here going back to the 2nd millennium, e.g. in Tell Qāṣila, also from Tyrus, Amrīt, Akhzib, Hazor, Sarepta etc.) via Cyprus, Carthage, Sicily (Motya), Sardinia and Ibiza into the far west (Cadiz). The masks (with openings for eyes and mouth) mostly …

Mechane

(320 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] The Greeks called any mechanical device μηχανή but in the narrow sense it referred to the Greek theatre machinery: a crane installed behind the stage as a flying apparatus that can be swung into the scene to take the characters in a drama to a remote location or cause gods to appear up high. The mechane is referre…

Theorikon

(135 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (θεωρικόν; theōrikón). Public payment to Attic citizens for participating in festivals, particularly dramatic performances. The introduction of the t. (also in the plural θεωρικά/ theōriká sc. χρήματα/ chrḗmata) was sometimes ascribed to Pericles [1], who was suspected of bribing the people with it (Plut. Pericles 9), sometimes to Agyrrhius, who c. 400 BC had expenses paid to participants in the Ekklēsía; there is no contemporary evidence, however. Apparently, Eubulus [1] was c. 350 the first to regularly use public money for subsidising visits to the theatre [1] for which purpose he established a state authority [2]. Festivals, Feasts; Theatre III …

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Deuteragonistes

(154 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (δευτεραγωνιστής; deuteragōnistḗs). ‘Second actor’, introduced by Aeschylus, but the designation deuteragonistes is more recent. Whilst the ‘first actor’ ( prōtagōnistḗs) traditionally took on the main role ( Átossa, Oidípous, Mḗdeia) and could identify with this, the deuteragonistes ─ or even the ‘third actor’ ( tritagōnistḗs) ─ had to cope with a large number of different roles. The amount of text that had to be mastered by the deuteragonistes was considerable and rapi…

Aesopus, Clodius

(163 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Tragedian in 1st-cent. BC Rome; respected freedman ( nostri familiaris Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,14), achieved wealth as a ‘star’. Scattered mentions provide no coherent picture of his art. In the role of Atreus, carried away by emotion, he is said to have killed a servant with his sceptre (Plut. Cicero 5,5), but  Cicero says his anger was simulated (Cic. Tusc. 4,55). His use of facial expression was praised (Cic. Div. 1,80); however Fronto (p. 143,13-14) emphasizes his intensive study of masks [1.48, 82, 89 fig.]. When the Senate decided to recall Cicero from exile, A. spontaneously approved, enrapturing his audience (Cic. Sest. 120-122[2]); at the consecration of the Theatre of Pompeius in Rome (55 BC) he…

Cincius

(526 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
Name of a plebeian family that gained prominence during the Second Punic War (Schulze, 266). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] C., L. Antiquarian author, 1st cent. BC? Antiquarian author probably of the late Republican period (1st cent. BC; since [6] differentiated from the historian L.C.Alimentus). Seven works of grammarian, antiquarian and legal content are known from quotes in Festus, Gellius and others (fragments: [1. 1,252ff.; 2. 71ff.]): De verbis priscis, De fastis, De comitiis, De consulum potestate, De officio iurisconsulti (at least two vols.), De re militari (6 vols.: Gell. NA 16,4,6), Mystagogicon libri

Hypokrites

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(ὑποκριτής; hypokritḗs). [German version] I. Concept The underlying verb ὑποκρίνομαι ( hypokrínomai) means in Homer ‘to make a decision upon request’, ‘to interpret’ (on omens: Hom. Il. 12,228 or dreams: Hom. Od. 19,535; 555) or ‘to answer’ (Hom. Od. 2,111). The basic meaning of the noun hypokrites, which is first attested in the 5th cent. BC, was thus postulated now as ‘answerer’ (to questions of the director of the chorus), now as ‘interpreter’ (of the myth which the chorus performed). It refers to the speaker who appeared opposite the si…

Manducus

(168 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Roman mask figure with an etymologically transparent name (derived from the verb mandere/manducare, meaning ‘chewer, ‘eater); its origin, however, is uncertain. According to Paul. Fest. 115 M. was brought along in the celebratory procession at the circus games ( pompa circensis; cf. [1]) as a tooth-gnashing monster to elicit laughter and fright. If we follow Varro (Ling. 7,95), this M. seems to have found his way into the improvisational Atellana fabula , where he was identified with the character of Dossennus [1] (whose name has b…
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