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Boagrius

(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Stiris

(103 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Στῖρις/ Stîris, Στιρίς/ Stirís). City in Eastern Phocis on the route from Chaeronea over the Helicon [2] to Delphi (Paus. 10,35,8), remains at modern Paleochori (monastery of Agios Nikolaos). In the 3rd cent. BC border conflicts with Panopeus (SEG 42, 479), in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC sympoliteía with Medeon [1] (Syll.3 647). Inscriptions: IG IX 1,32-57. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography F. Schober, Phokis, 1924, 40f.  Philippson/Kirsten 1, 438  N. D. Papachatzis, Pausaniu Hellados Periegesis, vol. 5, 1981, 441f.  J. Fossey, The Ancient To…

Larymna

(188 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Λάρυμνα; Lárymna). Harbour town in eastern Locris, on the Gulf of Euboea [1]. Remains of fortifications near modern L., from Mycenaean, archaic and classical times as well as the Roman Imperial period, testify to the continuity of settlement and reconstruction after the destruction by Sulla (86 BC: Plut. Sulla 26,4). On the ancient road between L. and Bazaraki, near the church of Agios Nikolaos, are the ruins of an early Christian basilica. The ancient settlement was located on the hill of Bazaraki c. 2.5 k…

Phocis

(1,395 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φωκίς/ Phōkís, Φωκεῖς/ Phōkeȋs). [German version] I. Geography A region in central Greece shaped by far-flung mountain ranges ( c. 1615 km2). Parnassus and Kirphis separate the eastern plain -- which is crossed by the Cephisus and borders east on the Callidromus up to Kopais - from the western plain which extends along the Gulf of Corinth up to the Bay of Cirrha, in the northeast borders on Doris, Thessaly and East Locris and in the west on Locris Ozolis. Phocis is one of the most seismically active regions in Gre…

Opus

(329 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ὀποῦς/ Opoûs). [German version] [1] Chief town of eastern Locris This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Boeotia, Boeotians Chief town of eastern Locris (Itin. Anton. 327,4), after which the surrounding countryside, a bay (modern Kolpos Atalantis) of the Euboean Sea and the Locri [1] who lived there were named. O. was either near modern Kyparissi (traces of an ancient settlement) or at modern Atalanti (numerous inscriptional finds: Ὀπούντιοι/ Opoúntioi, IG IX 1, 268-275; 278; δῆμος Ὀπουντίων/ dêmos opountíōn, IG IX 1, 282). The port of O. was C…

Cleonae

(339 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κλεωναί; Kleōnaí). [German version] [1] City in the mountainous area south-west of  Corinth This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes City in the mountainous area south-west of  Corinth at the intersection of the roads from Corinth south towards the Peloponnese. City wall and minimal remains of buildings on a hill 4 km north-west of Hagios Vasilios. In the south outside C. is a small Doric temple, probably of Hercules (Diod. Sic. 4,33.3). C. is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,570. Part of the …

Cyparissus

(325 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κυπάρισσος; Kypárissos). [German version] [1] Of Ceos of Ceos, beloved of  Apollo. Pained because he had accidentally killed his own favourite stag, C. begged to be allowed to mourn for ever and was turned into a cypress (Ov. Met. 10,106-142). Even though Ovid provides the earliest documentary evidence, the story itself is believed to be much older [1. 52]. In Servius' version, C. is a son of  Telephus, also hailing from Crete, also beloved of  Zephyrus or  Silvanus, but the stag was killed by Silvanu…

Cnemis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κνημίς; Knēmís). Mountain in  Locris; together with Chlomon, the highest peak (938 m) in the chain that with its foothills forms a mosaic of valleys and passes connecting the narrow, east Locrian coastal band with the hinterland; in the south the C. reaches the lower Cephissus valley and the Copais plain. The C. represents the natural boundary between Locris Hypocnemidia and Locris Epicnemidia. Its formation is ascribed to the predominantly vertical tectonic movement that in the o…

Panopeus

(390 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πανοπεύς; Panopeús). City in eastern Phocis in the northern part of the Cephisus valley at a height of 335 m near modern Hagios Vlasios on the border with Boeotia, on the “Sacred Way” leading from Athens to Delphi, about 4 km from Chaeronea. P. is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of Phocean cities (Hom. Il. 2,519-523) and was the residence of the Phocean kings (Hom. Il. 17,306-309; Paus. 10,4,2). Its founding is attributed to the Phlegyae expelled from Orchomenus [1] (Paus. 10,4…

Patronis

(85 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πατρωνίς; Patrōnís). City in eastern Phocis (Plut. Sulla 15,4), identical with Trōnís (Τρωνίς, Paus. 10,4,10; CID 2,208,1; 9) with a heroon of Archegetes of Phocis. Remains of the wall at modern Hagia Marina. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 50-53  Ph. Ntasios, Συμβολή στην τοπογραφίαν της Ἀρχαίας Φωκίδος, in: Phokikon Chronikon 4, 1992, 25f.  J. McInerney, The Phokikon and the Hero Archegetes, in: Hesperia 66, 1997, 193-207  Id, The Folds of Parnassos, 1999, 284-286.

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Tolophon

(88 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τολοφών; Tolophṓn). Port in western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,3; Dionysios Kalliphontos 66 f.) near modern Vidavi, where remains of city walls are visible near Galaxidi. Frequent mentions of the inhabitants of T. in inscriptions from Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 50 f.; 138-145; vol. 2, 1952, passim  Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 372, n. 2  K. Braun, s. v. T., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 688  G. J. Szemler, T., in: E. W. Kase et al. (eds.), The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vo…

Oeanthea

(237 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰανθέα/ Oìanthéa, Οἰάνθεια/ Oiántheia, Εὐάνθεια/ Euántheia, Latin Oianthe). Town in western Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) near the modern Vitrinitsa on the Gulf of Krisa like its neighbour  Chaleum (modern Galaxidi). Earliest evidence: a metrical funerary inscription (? 625-600 BC: IG IX,1, 867; SGDI 3188; Tod 1, 4) for a próxenos from Corcyra, and an agreement on judicial assistance with Chaleum (450 or later: IG IX 12, 717; Tod 1, 34; StV 2, 146 [2]). In the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, Spartan troops under Eurylochus [2] marched through O. wi…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Castalia

(253 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κασταλία; Kastalía, Lat. Castalia). Spring in  Delphi, dedicated to Apollo and the Muses, located at the exit of the gorge of the Phaedriades, its waters discharging into the river Pappadia; according to a -- geologically incorrect -- ancient assumption, the spring was fed by the Cephissus [1], which flows on the opposite slope of Mount Parnassus (Paus. 10,8,9f.; schol. Pind. Paean 6,5; POxy. 5, 841). In literature, C. is often used synonymously with  Delphi. The Castalian water, wh…

Cachales

(71 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καχάλης; Kachálēs). Tributary to the Cephisus river in Phocis, today called Kakorrema, flowing below the mountain fortress of Tithorea. C. was the source of the city's water supply (Paus. 10,32,11). The Greek name C. means ‘impetuous, noisy river’ (cf. καχλάζειν; kachlázein, ‘to make noise, to roar’). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. Kachales, RE 10, 1456 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 1981, 424 n. 1.

Locri, Locris

(4,613 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Musti, Domenico (Rome) | Del Monaco, Lavinio (Rome)
(Λοκροί, Λοκρίς; Lokroí, Lokrís). [1] Region in Greece [German version] A. Geography Locris comprised two regions in central Greece, separated from one another by two mountain ranges ( Parnassus, Callidromus and the valley of the Cephis(s)us): 1) Western L. with the plain south of the Gavia Pass from Amphissa to the Gulf of Corinth, bordered by the slopes of Parnassus and Corax; it extended to the west in a narrow coastal strip across the promontory Antirrhium and bordered on Aetolia, Doris, Phocis, Delphi and the hierà chṓra of the Apollo sanctuary. 2) Eastern L. comprised the s…

Naryca

(461 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ναρύκα/ Narýka, lit. also Νᾶρυξ/ Nâryx). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Locrians [1]) on the road from the Spercheus Valley via Thermopylae to Phocis, localized by inscriptions found in the church of Hagios Ioannes near Paleokastro at Rengini, approx. 8 km southeast of Mendenitsa ([1], cf. [2]; formerly believed to be at Atalante [3. 1138] or Kalapodi [4. 187]). Given its favourable setting in a fertile valley that was linked to the ocean via Thronion and located on the axis connecting n…

Amphicaea, Amphiclea

(153 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ἀμφίκαια, Ἀμφίκλεια; Amphíkaia, Amphíkleia). In eastern  Phocis at the foot of Mount  Parnassus, on the southern edge of the central Cephissus valley; archaeological traces (late Mycenaean and 8th cent. BC), remains of a ring of wall and towers ( c. 5th-4th cent. BC). Destroyed during the Persian invasion of 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and again at the end of the Third Sacred War in 346 BC (Paus. 10,3,2); rebuilt as Amphikleia (called Dadi(on) from the Middle Ages, nowadays once more…

Charadra

(331 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(χαράδρα; charádra). Generic Greek term for non-perennial streams or rivers, or deeply eroded valleys and gorges (Italian torrente, Modern Greek rhevma) [1]. Attic inscriptions of the  Poletai, especially mining leases, mention many charadrai [2]. [German version] [1] Major river in northern Attica Major river in northern Attica, springing from the north-eastern foot of the Parnes and flowing into the plain of Marathon; also called the Marathon stream or the Oenoe [3; 4]. Proverbial in referring to troubles brought upon oneself, as a la…

Delphi

(3,801 words)

Author(s): Maaß, Michael (Karlsruhe) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Celts | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Δελφοί; Delphoí), Delphi. I. Topography and Archaeology [German version] A. Site Delphi, with its sanctuary of Apollo, lies at an altitude of 533 to 600 m. on the south slope of Mt. Parnassus (main summit 2,457 m.), by the cleft of the Castalia Gorge. The Phaedriads (around …

Scarphea

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (Σκάρφεια/ Skárpheia). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Hom. Il. 2,532;  cf. Str. 9,4,4; Tab. Peut. 8,1; Geogr. Rav. 375,6), near modern Molo in a seismically active zone, seriously affected by tsunamis in 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6; Thuc. 2,32) and AD 551 (Procop. Goth. 4,25,16-23). Initially in rivalry with Thronium for dominance in the region (cf. the conflict over the number of Delphic hieromnḗmones and border conflicts: FdD vol. 3, 38,3; 42,7), in Late Anti…

Pleistus

(117 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλειστός/ Pleistós; literary form Πλεῖστος/ Pleîstos, Herodianus, De prosodia catholica 217). River, modern Xeropotami, and valley in western Phocis at the southern foot of Mount Parnassus, where Delphi was located. It flows into the Gulph of Corinth in the east of the plain of Itea. Material remains attest to settlement from Protohelladic II onwards; the greatest density of settlement is found in the Mycenaean Period. Cf. Paus. 10,8,8; 37,7; Str. 9,3,3; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711. Crisa Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 21, …

Plygonium

(99 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλυγόνιον/ Plygónion). Western Locrian locality in the west of Delphi, unknown to ancient literature. In Delphic inscriptions before 190 BC - the year P. was incorporated into Delphi - the Πλυγόνεις/ Plygóneis are frequently mentioned. It should be distinguished from a Phlygonium  ([1] as opposed to [2]) in Phocis. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE Suppl. 14, 385-387 2 E. Kirsten, s.v. Phlygonion, RE 20, 306-308. G. Daux, Delphes au IIe et au Ier siècle, 1936, 230-234, esp. 234  L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'Ouest, vol. 1, 1952…

Oeneon

(207 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰνεών/ Oineṓn; also Οἰνόη/ Oinóe, regularly after the 5th cent. BC, or Οἰνόα/ Oinóa). Town in western Locris, east of Naupactus, near the modern Klima on the Paleochori hill (remains of city wall ring), with a harbour (modern Monastirakio). As the death of Hesiod (Hesiodus) was documented at the nearby sanctuary of Zeus Nemeios (Thuc. 3,96,1), O. can be identified with Oinoe (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 215-254; Tzetz. Vita Hesiodi 97; 101; 104; cf. Plut. Mor. 162 e-f). It is uncertain whether the ethnikon Oinaîos (Οἰναῖος) or Oinoaîos (Οἰνοαῖος) in inscriptions f…

Lycorea

(268 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λυκώρεια; Lykṓreia). Pólis (Paus. 10,6,2; Suda s.v. Λυκωρεύς) or kṓme (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711; 4,1490; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) in the summit region of the Parnassus. Various versions explaining the etymology and foundation: 1) the howling of the wolves (λύκων ὠρυγαῖς, Paus. l.c.) that led the residents to the peak of the Parnassus, which saved them from Deucalion's Flood ( Deucalion); 2) Lycorus, the son of Apollo and the nymph Corycia (Paus. l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.)…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Myonia

(288 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυονία/ Myonía, Μυάνη/ Myánē, Μυών/ Myṓn). One of the four towns in Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) (Paus. 10,38,8; Plin. HN 4,8: Myania), about 30 stadia ( c. 5,7 km) north of Amphissa, from where it is possible only with difficulty to reach Locris (Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. see Μ., here also Μυών; Herodian. 3,1,22; 3,1,297), exact location uncertain; there is discussion about Hagia Efthymia [1. 79], Seghditsa (present-day Pavliani) on the eastern slope of Ghiona [2. 380], Topolia (present-day Elaion) with r…

Thronium

(230 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Θρόνιον; Thrónion). City in eastern Locris (Locri [1]) on the northeastern slopes of Mount Cnemis at the edge of the Boagrius plain, which opens on to the Gulf of Malia, on the coast road to Thermopylae (Aeschin. Or. 2,132) near modern Palaiokastro (traces of Hellenistic and Roman settlements, surviving fortifications). T. was home to the family of Ajax [2] (Hom. Il. 2,533; Eur. Iph. A. 262 ff.). Severely affected by the earthquake of 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6), T.…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Pedieis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πεδιεῖς; Pedieîs). Town in the upper Cephisus valley in eastern Phocis whose location is pinpointed as being near Palio Thiva, 5 km north-northeast of modern Tithorea. However, this location has also been suggested for Neon [6]. P. lay on the right bank of the river where traces of the wall ring have been preserved. P. was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and laid waste by the Boeotians in 395 BC (Hell. Oxy. 18(13),5). In 360 BC it appeared in the list of those paying contributions towards the rebuilding of the temple of Delphi (CID II 5 Z. 55f.). Daverio Rocchi, G…

Tarphe

(48 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τάρφη/ Tárphē). City in eastern Locris (Hom. Il. 2,533); according to  Str. 9,4,6  the original place name of Pharygae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; s. v. Φαρύγαι; s. v. Θρόνιον). Location unknown. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. W. Kase et al., The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vol. 1, 1991, 88.

Tethronion

(104 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τεθρώνιον; Tethrṓnion). City in eastern Phocis (Hdt. 8,33; Plin. HN 4,8) on the northern edge of the valley of the upper Cephis(s)us [1], 20 stadia from Drymus [1], 15 stadia from Amphicaea (Paus. 10,33,12); presumably to the northeast of modern Amphikleia or on a hill 5 km to the south of modern T. with ancient remains of city walls. In 480 BC destroyed by the Persians (Hdt. 8,33; Paus. 10,3,2), in 208 BC occupied by Philippus [7] V (Liv. 28,7,13). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Bd. 5, 1981, 431  Müller, 5…

Cynus

(168 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κῦνος; Kŷnos). Town of Opuntian  Locris (Hom. Il. 2,531; Scyl. 60; Lycoph. Alexandra 1147; Ptol. 3,15,9; Plin. HN 4,27; Hecat. in Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.; Mela 2,3,40) and ship mooring place (ἐπίνειον; epíneion, emporium) of  Opus (Paus. 10,1,2; Str. 9,4,2; Steph. Byz. loc. cit.; Liv. 28,6,12). The settlement covered the peak of the hill, known as modern Palaiopyrgos or Pyrgos after the ruins of the ancient walls and after a medieval tower that juts out over the little bay on the northern tip of the plain of Ataland…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…
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