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Neleus

(637 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Νηλεύς; Nēleús). [German version] [1] King of the Messenian Pylos King of Messenian Pylos, son of Poseidon and Tyro, the daughter of Salmoneus. Tyro, wife of Cretheus, falls in love with the river god Enipeus. In his guise, Poeseidon sires with her N. and his twin brother Pelias (Hom. Od. 11,235-253; cf. also Hes. Cat. 30f.). After Cretheus' death, strife develops between N. and Pelias over who is to rule in Iolcus. N. is forced to repair to the Peloponnese, where he founds Pylos (Hom. Od. 11,254-259; He…

Musaeus

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος; Mousaîos). [German version] [1] Mythical companion of the Muses Mythical companion of the Muses (whose name is an adjectival derivative of Μοῦσα ( Moûsa; ‘Muse’)), an archegete of poetry and a close associate of Orpheus connected with Eleusis [1] . As a scion of the Muses (and Selene: Pl. Resp. 2,364e), M. was brought up by them (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) and buried on their hill in Athens (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). The origin of M. who lived in Eleusis and Athens (Suda s.v. Μ.) (pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, end of the 5th cent. BC; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A…

Hegesippus

(950 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἡγήσιππος; Hēgḗsippos). [German version] [1] Athen. rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Hegesias from Sunium, Athenian rhetor and envoy from a wealthy family. In 357/6 BC he spoke in the ekklesia as a champion of aid for Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), in 356/5 of the Athenian symmachy with Phocis (Aeschin. In Ctes. 118; Dem. Or. 19,72-74 with schol.) and between 346 and 340 of further decrees for foreign policy (Dem. Or. 18,75). In the year 345 he defended Timarchus against  Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. In Tim. 71) together with his br…

Sosipater

(78 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σωσίπατρος; Sōsípatros). Poet of New Comedy, known only from a 57-verse citation, preserved in Athenaeus, from the play Καταψευδόμενος ( Katapseudómenos, 'The Slanderer') [1]. In the fragment, a cook praises himself - in a dialogue with his interlocutor Demylus, presumably his employer - as one of the three greatest living exponents of his craft, which he depicts as a most exacting science based on astrology, architecture and strategy. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 604-607.

Mnesimachus

(228 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Μνησίμαχος; Mnēsímachos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy A comic poet whom both Athenaeus and the Suda attribute to Middle Comedy [1. test. 1, 2]. His name is on the victors' list of the Lenaean festival, immediately after Antiphanes [1. test. 3], and his creative period extends from the 360's into the  340's BC [2]. We still have the titles of seven of his plays: Ἀλκμαίων (or -έων), Βούσιρις, Δύσκολος, Ἱπποτρόφος, Ἰσθμιονίκης, Φαρμακοπώλης, Φίλιππος ( Alkmaíōn/éōn, Boúsiris, Dýskolos, Hippótrophos, Isthmioníkēs, Pharmakopṓlēs, Phílippos). By far the longest fra…

Sogenes

(36 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σωγένης; Sōgénēs). Poet of New Comedy, reached the fifth rank at the Attic Dionysia in 183 BC with his play Φιλοδέσποτος ('His Master's Friend') [1]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 593.

Heniochus

(107 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Ἡνίοχος; Hēníochos). Writer of Middle Comedy, of whose work the Suda still mentions eight titles:Τροχίλος (‘Trochílos’), Ἐπίκληρος (‘The daughter heiress’), Γοργόνες (‘The Gorgons’), Πολυπράγμων (‘The Busybody’), Θωρύκιον (‘Thōrýkion’), Πολύευκτος (‘Polýeuktos’), Φιλέταιρος (‘Philhétairos’), Δὶς ἐξαπατώμενος (‘The Twice Deceived’) [1. test. 1]. Apart from the scanty remains of these plays preserved by Athenaeus (at least the dithyrambizing language of fr. 1 [2. 262] is noteworthy)…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Dexicrates

(100 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Δεξικράτης; Dexikrátēs). Comedy writer of the 3rd cent. BC and hence belonging to the New Comedy if his name is correctly supplied on the epigraphical list of Lenaean victors [1. test. *2]. Ath. 3,124b cites two verses from the play Ὑφ' ἑαυτῶν πλανώμενοι (fr. 1); the Suda article is based on this passage, and the addition that D. was an Athenian was probably a conclusion drawn from this [1. test. 1]. A brief mention is also to be found in the work of the grammarian Herodian (fr. 2). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 16.

Philippides

(307 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Φιλιππίδης/ Philippídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Athenian, follower of Philip II (Philippus [4] II), mocked by the comic poets Alexis, Aristophon [4] and Menander [4] (Ath. 6,230c; 238c; 11,503a; 12,552d-f). After two convictions for proposing illegal measures, as charged by Hyperides in 336 BC or between 336 and 334, he was again prosecuted on such a charge ( paranómōn graphḗ ) for his proposal to grant honours to the próhedroi (Hyp. Or. 4), among whom Philip [4] II had been honoured. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography J. Engels, Stu…

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC (Lys. or. 21,4) and whose name also appears on the list of winners at the Dionysia (after Nicophon and Theopompus) [1. test. 2; 3]. The titles of four pieces are transmitted (Ἀμαζόνες/‘The Amazons, Ἀντιλαΐς/‘Antilaïs, Τροφώνιος/‘Trophonius, Ὕς/‘Hys) as well as a total of 13 verses; the longest fragment of these contains five verses of a dia…

Demophilus

(250 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Δημόφιλος; Dēmóphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, mid-4th cent. BC Athenian orator who, in 346/45 BC, proposed the scrutiny of citizen lists which resulted in loss of citizenship for many (Aeschin. In Tim. 77,86; Androtion FGrH 324 F 52 = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 52; Sch. Aeschin. In Tim. 77) [1; 2]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian prosecutor of Aristotle 323 BC Athenian, accused  Aristotle in 323 BC (Diog. Laert. 5,5; Ath. 696a) of asébeia,impiety, because of the hymn and epigram to Hermias of Atarneus (cf. [3]). D. was successful in…

Philetaerus

(662 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Φιλέταιρος; Philétairos). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (1st half of 4th cent. BC), according to Dicaearchus, son of the comic poet Aristophanes [3] [1. test. 1; 2. 192], though this remains uncertain owing to some discrepancies in ancient tradition [3]. In the list of victors at the Lenaea, P. has two victories immediately after Anaxandrides and before Eubulus. Of the total of 21 pieces attributed to P. by the Suda [1. test. 1], the titles…

Sosicrates

(61 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σωσικράτης; Sōsikrátēs). Greek comic poet, attested exclusively in others' writings, by all appearances belonging to New Comedy. Pollux quotes three verses from the play Παρακαταθήκη ( Parakatathḗkē, 'The Pledge'), Athenaeus three from the Φιλάδελφοι ( Philádelphoi, 'The Fond Brothers'), Stobaeus two verses and the Suda the gloss ἀμφίας from unknown comedies [1]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 600-602.

Ameipsias

(106 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] Attic poet of the Old Comedy, from whose productions seven titles of works and some short fragments are still extant. A. achieved second place in the Dionysia in the year 423 BC, behind Cratinus and ahead of Aristophanes (first, ‘Clouds’) [1. test. 5a]. He likewise had the victory in 414 in the Dionysia ahead of Aristophanes (‘Birds’) and Phrynichus [1. 203] and was victorious a further time in the Dionysia as well as once in the Lenaea [1. test. 3,4]. In the opinion of his rival Aristophanes, A. was a coarse comedian [1. test. 6]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG II,…

Sosippus

(73 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σώσιππος; Sṓsippos). Comic poet from an undetermined period, mentioned only in Athenaeus, who introduced a citation of 8 verses with the remark: Diphilus or S. says in his Ἀπολείπουσα ( The runaway) ... [1]. The fragment itself is more often ascribed to the better known Diphilus, particularly as his play of the same name is attested several times [2]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 608 2 PCG V, 1986, 58-61.

Sotades

(714 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Σωτάδης/ Sōtádes). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (4th cent. BC), explicitly referred to as such by Athenaeus and the Suda [1. test. 1.2]. Athenaeus quotes 35 verses from the play Ἐγκλειόμεναι/ Enkleiómenai (or -οι/- oi; 'The Incarcerated') in which a cook speaks at length about his skill of preparing fish (fr. 1). Furthermore, two verses from the Παραλυτρούμενος ( Paralytroúmenos, 'The Redeemed Prisoner'; fr. 3) were transmitted by Athenaeus (fr. 4) and in a commentary on Job five verses from an u…

Philonides

(298 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Φιλωνίδης; Philōnídēs). [German version] [1] Attic poet of Old Comedy Attic Old Comedy poet, father of the comic poet Nicochares [1. test. 1, 2]. The supplementation of his name on the list of victors at the Dionysia is insecure [1. test. 3]. Three play titles survive - Ἀπήνη ( Apḗnē / 'The Chariot'), Κόθορνοι ('The Cothurni'), Φιλέταιρος ( Philétairos / 'The Good Comrade') - as do 17 brief fragments, most from 'The Cothurni'. The play Προαγών ( Proagṓn / 'The Preliminary Contest'), sometimes attributed to P., is probably by Aristophanes, who had it produced under P.'s …

Demonicus

(55 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Δημόνικος; Dēmónikos). Writer of comedies of unknown date, perhaps the 4th cent. BC [1]. D. is only attested in Ath. 9,410c where four verses are quoted from the piece Ἀχελῶιος ( Achelôios) that describe hospitality extended to a voracious Boeotian (perhaps Hercules) (fr. 1). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 14.

Apollophanes

(252 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Attic poet of the Old Comedy Attic poet of the Old Comedy, who according to the witness of Suda wrote five pieces (Δαλίς, Δανάη, Ἰφιγέπων, Κένταυροι, Κρῆτες; Dalís, Danáē, Iphigépōn, Kéntauroi, Krêtes; 1. test. 1), all of which are lost, except for a few remnants. On the inscription list of the Lenaean victors A. figures between Nicophon and Amipsias [1. test. 3]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 518-523. [German version] [2] Personal physician of Antiochos III Son of A. of Seleucia, personal physician ( archiatros) and tropheus of Antiochus III;…

Callipus

(90 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] Earlier thought to be a writer of comedies because of a transcription error in Ath. 15,668c, where three lines are quoted from Κάλλιπος ἐν Παννυχίδι (‘C. in the Pannychís). Since the appearance of the PBerolinensis 13417 with the rest of the drinking poem Pannychís by  Callimachus [3], including the lines quoted by Athenaeus, there can be no doubt that the phrase in question should read Καλλίμαχος [1; 2]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 A. Körte, s.v. C. (18), RE 10, 1667 2 R. Pfeiffer, Callimachus I, 1949, 217 (F 227).

Sopater

(416 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Σώπατρος/ Sṓpatros). [German version] [1] Greek rhetorician, 4th cent. AD Greek rhetorician of the 4th cent. AD, contemporary and perhaps pupil of Himerius (Walz 8,318,29, where the reading ὁ σοφὸς ὁ ἡμέτερος Ἱμέριος 'our learned teacher Himerius' is probably to be preferred). S. probably taught at Athens (Walz 8,55,6 f.). These pieces of information come from his main work, the Διαίρεσις Ζητημάτων/Di(h)aíresis Zētēmátōn (approx. 'Discussion of Questions'), a collection of 82 fictional controversiae , dedicated to an otherwise unknown Carponia…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Satyrion

(41 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σατυρίων/ Satyríōn). Poet of New Comedy (3rd century BC), known only from an epigraphic mention in the list of victors at the Dionysia, in which S. appears with one victory [1]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 590.

Nicarchus

(380 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος; Níkarchos). [German version] [1] General of Antiochus III, 218 BC Active at the beginning of the Fourth  Syrian War as one of  Antiochus  [5] III's generals. In 218 BC he took part in Antiochus advance into southern Syria at the occupation of the narrows on the River  Lycus  and later at the conquest of Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) and became commander of the garrison there. In the battle of  Raphia in 217 he led the part of Antiochus' phalanx whose weakness contributed to the downfall of the Seleucids (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibli…

Calliades

(227 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Καλλιάδης; Kalliádēs). [German version] [1] Writer of New Comedy Writer of New Comedy, appearing on the inscription of Lenaea winners in 6th place after Menander, 5th after Philemon and 3rd after Diphilus [5], and thus to be dated to the end of the 4th cent. BC [1]. Ath. 9,401a quotes ‘Diphilus or C.’, as author of an Ágnoia, but at another point (15,700c) he talks only of Diphilus as author of this play. Even the barb against the orator Aristophon [2] that Ath. 13,577b attributes to C. is dubious [1. 53]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 37. [German version] [2] Sculptor Scul…

Simylus

(202 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Σίμυλος/ Símylos). [German version] [1] Poet of the New Comedy, 3rd cent. BC Poet of the New Comedy, victorious at the Lenaea in 284 BC with his play Ἐφεσία/Ephesía ('The Girl of Ephesus') [1. test. 1]. Pollux also lists the comedy Μεγαρική/Megarikḗ ('The Girl of Megara'), which according to an uncertain expansion of the list of Dionysia victors was supposed to have been performed in 185 as 'Old Comedy' [1. test. 2]. It is equally uncertain whether two and a half iambic trimeters cited by Theophilus of Antioch are attributable to the comic poet S. [1. fr. 2] (cf. S. [2]). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) B…

Alcaeus

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἀλκαῖος; Alkaîos). The suggestive mythological name ( alkḗ, ‘strength’) is connected with Hercules. [German version] [1] Grandfather of Hercules Grandfather of Hercules, son of Perseus and Andromeda, husband of Astydameia, the daughter of Pelops, father of Amphitryon and Anaxo (Hes. Sc. 26; Schol. Eur. Hec. 886). Also the form of the name Alceus appears to be attested, which is more compatible with the patronymic Alcides. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Original name of Hercules Original name of Hercules, altered at the command of the Delphic Oracle (Di…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Mnasicles

(45 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Μνασικλῆς; Mnasiklês). Attic poet of New Comedy, who was given the task of composing an inscription in honour of the technítai of Dionysus (c. 130 BC) [1]. His entire work has been lost. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 15.

Metagenes

(253 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Μεταγένης; Metagénēs). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Old Comedy, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic poet of the last years of the Old Comedy (end of the 5th and early 4th cent. BC), listed among the winners at the Lenaea with two victories, immediately before Theopompus [1. test. 2]. The Suda mentions the titles of five plays: Αὖραι ἢ Μαμμάκυθος , Θουριοπέρσαι, Φιλοθύτης, Ὅμηρος ἢ Ἀσκηταί (or Ὅμηρος ἢ Σοφισταί [1. fr. 11]) [1. test. 1]. The plays have been lost, except for a few fragments. In the most extensive fragment (11 V. from the Θουριοπέρσαι) the na…

Sophilus

(372 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Σώφιλος; Sṓphilos). [German version] [1] Early Attic BF vase painter, c. 600-570 BC Early Attic black-figured vase painter, c. 600-570 BC, the earliest whose name is known (3 painter signatures verified). S. is one of the representatives of the animal frieze style, as is the Gorgo Painter, to whom he is very close. His significance, however, is founded on a mythological frieze with which S. introduces new possibilities to Attic vase painting. In this he also uses particular painting techniques, which create a ve…
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