[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes (Νικηφόριον/
Nikēphórion). Town at the point where the Baliḥ flows into the Euphrates. As a settlement, it succeeded Tuttul (Tall Bīa) and preceded the Arabic ar-Raqqa. Its founder is variously said to have been Seleucus I (App. Syr. 298), Alexander the Great (Plin. HN 6,119; Isidorus of Charax, Mansiones parthicae 1 GGM 1, 248) and, in Syrian sources, Seleucus II. In the middle of the 3rd cent. AD it was renamed Callinicum (or, in Greek, Καλλίνικος/
Kallínikos). It was also briefly called Constantina and Leontopolis. Around this time, this important trading town (Amm. Marc. 23,3,7) became one of the official centres for the trade with Persia (Cod. Iust. 4,63,4). After its capture by Chosroes  I in AD 542, it was refortified by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 2,7,17). Not. Dign. Or. 35,16 mentions that it was defended by a cavalry unit under the
dux Oshroenae (Osroene). Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) Bibliography M. al Khalaf, K. Kohlmeyer, Untersuchungen zu ar-Raqqa-N./Callinicum, in: MDAI(Dam) 2, 1985, 133-162 E.F. Weidner, s.v. Nikephorion, RE 17, 309f.