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Menaḥem ben Yehuda

(282 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] Son (or grandson) of Judas Galileus, who (like his father Hezekiah) fought against Rome and Herod (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,1,6; 14,9,2) [2]. Judas is described by Iosephus [4] Flavius as the founder of the so-called fourth (nameless, later given the derogatory name of Sicarii, ‘Dagger Men’ = ‘Murderers’ [1. 50]) philosophical school, which differed from the Pharisaei mainly in its love of freedom and its struggle for the absolute rule of God (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,1,1; 18,1,6) [3. 599; 1. 8…

Onias

(574 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Greek Ὀν(ε)ίας/ On(e)ías; Hebrew neḥonyah, ḥunyah, ḥoni); personal name, which was widespread in ancient Judaism ([9. vol. 2, 1394, 1455]; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,22; 25; 222; Jos. Ap. 2,49; Mishnah Taan 3,8). In the pre-Maccabaean period, bearers of this name included four Zadokid High Priests at the Temple of Jerusalem. The most important historical sources for the lineage of the Oniads are the Antiquitates Iudaicae of Iosephus [4] Flavius and 2 Macc. [German version] [1] O. I. High Priest, father of Simon the Just, 4th/3rd cents. BC (Late 4th cent. BC). Son of the High Priest Jaddu…

Zealots

(640 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (ζηλωταί/ zēlōtaí, from Greek ζηλοῦν/ zēloûn, 'strive after'). Political and religious group of Jews who rose against Roman rule in Palestine in the 1st cent. AD, primarily in the first Jewish-Roman War (Jewish Wars). The term 'Zealots' can be found in Iosephus [4] Flavius (BI 4,160f.; 7,268-270), whose Bellum Iudaicum (books 4-7) and Antiquitates form the most important historical sources for the Zealots' movement and ideology. The term is a translation of the Hebrew qannāīm ( qannā, 'eager', sc. for God, e.g. in the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhed…

Phocylides

(409 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φωκυλίδης/ Phōkylídēs). [German version] [1] Poet from Miletus, c. 540 BC Greek poet from Miletus (Phryn. 336, p. 463 R.; Suda) who wrote hexameters and elegiac gnomai (gnome; elegiac: Athen. 632d; both: Suda φ 643), c. 540 BC (Suda). The Γνῶμαι/ Gnômai, aphorisms, are ascribed to P. by many authors (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Strabo, Dion [I 3] Chrysostomus, Athenaeus, Clement of Alexandria). They begin (as do those of Demodocus [2] of Lerus) with καὶ τόδε Φωκυλίδου/ kai tóde Phōkulídou, 'P. says this, too'). They are written in hexameters (from one to eight verses…

Jerusalem

(2,389 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Dead Sea (textual finds) | Caesar | Christianity | Zenobia | Coloniae | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Legio | Limes | Mesopotamia | Natural catastrophes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Aegean Koine [German version] I. Name Hebrew Y rūšālēm, presumably ‘foundation of the (god) Šalēm’, in the Masoretic texts ( Masorah) always vocalized in the dual form Y rūšālayim; Greek Ἱερουσαλήμ, Ἰεροσόλυμα; Latin Ierusalem, [ H] ierosolyma), archaizing Šālēm (Gn 14:18; Ps 76:3) or Y bōs (Judg 19:10-11; 1 Chr 11:4-5), und…

Fiscus Iudaicus

(230 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] The special tax of two drachmas per person imposed on the Jewish population after the conquest of Jerusalem (AD 70) by Vespasianus (Jos. BI 7,218). The fiscus iudaicus ( FI) replaced the half-shekel tax levied for the Jewish Temple and was regarded as a punitive measure as it was diverted to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome. Under Domitianus the FI was collected rigourously as a measure for preventing conversions (Suet. Dom. 12,2) [3; 4; 7], but already under Nerva the collection was eased off [1; 4]. The levying of the FI is attested until the mid 3rd cent. AD …

Libias

(209 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λιβιάς; Libiás, Latin Livias, also Iulias). Town in the eastern Jordan valley, the Aramaic name of which is bet ramta, and which, according to Jewish tradition, is to be identified with the biblical bet haran (or haram; Nm 32:36; Jos 13:27) (jTalmud Shevi 9,2 [38d]). The Christian traditions of Hier. and Eus. (Euseb. On. 48,13ff.; Βηθραμφθά, Bēthramphthá) follow this. Even if this identification is not certain, bet ramta is undoubtedly identical with the town mentioned by Jos. (BI 17,10,6) Bētharámata (Βηθαράματα), where Herodes [1] the Great owned a palac…

Magic, Magi

(7,505 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Frans (Amsterdam) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General The magic of the ancient Orient and of Egypt is based on a view of the world that runs counter to that of religion. In the world-view of magic, men, gods and demons are tied to each other and to the cosmos by sympathies and antipathies, whereas in the religious world view everything is created by the gods for their own purposes; the relations between men and the cosmos are the result of deliberate actions of the gods. In the practice of religion, however, b…

Iosephus

(1,520 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Ἰώσηπ(π)ος; Iṓsēp(p)os, Ιώσηφ(ος); Iṓsēph(os)). From Hebrew yosep yosipyah ‘may God add (further children)’, a prevalent Jewish name in memory of the biblical patriarch Joseph (Gen. 35; 37-50), e.g. in the Herodian family. [German version] [1] Uncle and brother-in-law of Herod [1] the Gr. Uncle and brother-in-law of  Herod [1]  the Great (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,65; 81). He acted as his deputy for the duration of Herod's journey to M.  Antonius [I 9] in 34 BC. He became involved in the intrigues surrounding Queen  Mariamme, his wife Salome pr…

Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 292 (not identical with …

Septuagint

(931 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] I. Origin According to the legend of the origin of the Septuagint, which is based on the so-called Letter of Aristeas [2] ([12. 20-37; 15. 677-687; 13]), king Ptolemy [3] II Philadelphus had the Pentateuch translated into Greek for his library by 70 (or 72; 70 = ἑβδομήκοντα/ hebdomḗkonta, Latin septuaginta interpretes, hence the name S./LXX) scholars over a period of 70 (or 72) days. The name then came to refer to the Greek translation of the entire Hebrew Bible including the Apocrypha (Apocryphal literature). This story is prob…

Sambethe

(259 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαμβήθη/ Sambḗthē or Σάββη/ Sábbē). Name, probably derived from Hebrew šabbat (Sabbath) [7. 622 ff.], of the Jewish Sibyl, who can be identified with the Egyptian, Persian and Babylonian Sibyls [2. 317 ff.]. A Sabbe is first recorded in Pausanias' [8] list of four Sibyls ( c. AD 160) (Paus. 10,12,1-9), drawing on Alexander [23] Polyhistor. She can be identified with a prophetess known as a 'Noah's daughter' in Or. Sib. 3,823 ff., Or. Sib. prooemium 33 and Or. Sib.  1,289. The 12 books of the Oracula Sibyllina, pseudepigraphic apocalyptic literature (Apocalypse…

Phasael

(532 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φασάηλος; Phasáēlos). [German version] [1] Eldest son of Antipater [4] and Cyprus Eldest son of Antipater [4] and Cyprus, born in c. 77 BC probably in Marissa (Idumaea; Jos. Bl.  1,8,9; Jos. Ant. lud. 14,7,3). In 47 BC, P. was appointed governor  (στρατηγός/stratēgós) of Jerusalem and the surrounding area by Antipater (ἐπίτροπος/ epítropos of Judaea under the high priest and ethnarchos Hyrcanus [3] II), while his brother Herod [1] took on the same office in Galilee (Jos. Ant. lud. 14,9,2; Jos. Bl 1,10,4). Josephus credits P…

Jossipon

(208 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] This historical depiction of world events (from Adam to the destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem by Titus in AD 70) was written in Hebrew, presumably in the 10th cent. in southern Italy. It is based on the works of  Iosephus [4] Flavius ( Antiquitates Judaicae, Bellum Judaicum, Contra Apionem). Aside from the Latin version of the Bellum (so-called Latin Hegesippus, 4th cent. AD) diverse medieval chronicles can be established as the main models. At the centre are disputes between Rome and Israel. Medieval translations into Arabi…

Gessius Florus

(280 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] The last of seven procurators who administered most of Palestine as a Roman province after the death of Agrippa I in AD 44 under the supreme command of the Syrian governor. Born in Clazomenae, he obviously obtained his office through the links between his wife Cleopatra and the empress Poppaea Sabina (Jos. Ant. Iud. 20,252f.). His rule lasted only two years (AD 64-66) and ended with the outbreak of the 1st Jewish uprising against Rome (Tac. Hist. 5,10). Josephus Flavius whose Bellum Iudaicum is the most important source for Gessius Florus (GF) (cf. Jos. BI 2,1…

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…
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