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Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Thrasydaeus

(171 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Θρασυδαῖος/ Thrasydaîos). [German version] [1] From Elis, c. 400 BC T. from Elis. Leader of anti-Spartan democrats in the war between Elis and Sparta (402-400 BC), after initial successes in 400 he had to conclude a peace in which the Eleans abandoned dependent towns with the exception of Olympia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,21-31; Diod. 14,17,4-12; 34,1; Paus. 3,8,3-5). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Perhaps from Pharsalus, second half of the 4th cent. BC In the 340s BC T., who may have been from Pharsalus (cf. Syll.3 240 H), was a Thessalian tetrarch under Philippus […

Crusis

(151 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Κρουσίς; Krousís). This region named in Hdt. 7,123,2, Thuc. 2,79,4, Str. 7, fr. 21 and Steph. Byz. s.v., lay to the north of  Bottice on the north-west coast of the Chalcidic peninsula between cape Megalo Karaburnu and Nea Kallikrateia. Its coastal towns Aenea, Smila, Scapsa, Gigonus and Haisa are mentioned already in Hecataeus and in Herodotus' account of Xerxes' campaign, and attested, in some cases from 452/1 BC, in others only from 434/3 (together with the inland localities of…

Rhaecelus

(106 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαίκηλος; Rhaíkēlos). According to Aristot. Ath. pol. 15,2, Peisistratus [4] and the Eretrieis (Eretria [1]) colonised a χωρίον/ chōríon ('spot') on the Thermaean Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) called R., which, on the basis of Lycoph. 1236 f., scholars have from time to time identified with Aenea. In fact, however, it is probably the name of a region in the western Anthemus, in which at the time the Eretrian colony of Dicaea came into being. There is no further mention of the place in a historical context. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography D. Viviers, Pisistratus' Settlem…

Dicaea

(131 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Δίκαια; Díkaia). This colony of  Eretria was probably founded in the middle of the 6th cent. BC with the help of Peisistratus; it lay east of Aineia in the interior, probably near Trilofo. As late as the early years of the Peloponnesian War it was a member of the  Delian League. It was able to keep its autonomy into the first half of the 4th cent., becoming Macedonian no later than 349/8. Its later history is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine à l'époqu…

Arrabaeus

(144 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἀρραβαῖος; Arrhabaîos). [German version] [1] King of Lyncestis (2nd half 5th cent. AD) Son of Bromerus and king of Lyncestis, who in 424-423 BC fought against  Brasidas and the Macedonian king Perdiccas II (Thuc. 4.79.2; 83; 124ff.). His independence was established in an agreement between Athens and Perdiccas (IG I3 1,89; date debated). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography HM Vol. 2, 14-19, 129-136 Borza, 150-154. [German version] [2] From the royal house of Lyncestis (middle 4th cent. AD) From the royal house of  Lyncestis. After  Alexander's [4] accession to the thron…

Sarte

(115 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σάρτη; Sártē). Mentioned in Hdt. 7,122 as the southernmost of the towns on the east coast of the Chalcidian Sithonia (Chalcidice), S. should be found in the area of present-day Sarti. S. appears in the Athenian registers of the tribute shares only in 434/3 BC (ATL 1,396 f.), after the area was split off from Torone; in 432, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, it sided with Athens; in 415/4 it appears once more in the evidence as a member of the Delian League. Since it is not mentioned again in the evidence, S. must have been re-incorporated later by Torone. Zahrnt, Michael…

Smila

(32 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σμίλα; Smíla). City in Crusis (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 148; Hdt. 7,123,2; ATL 1, 410 f., until 421 BC). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 236.

Eion

(204 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(ᾘών; Ēiṓn). [German version] [1] City on the left shore of the Strymon This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (ἡ ἐπὶ Στρυμόνι). City on the left shore of the Strymon, harbour of Amphipolis (Thuc. 1,98; Dem. Or. 12,23; 23,199), archaeological traces near Ofrini (Greece). Phoenix is said to have been buried there by Neoptolemus (Lycoph. 417 with schol.). It became a military base under Darius I and was used as a supply camp under Xerxes, commanded by  …

Chalcidice

(493 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Χαλκιδική; Chalkidikḗ). The name C., used today for the entire peninsula with its three extended fingers, in antiquity referred only to the area occupied by the Chalcidians on Sithonia and its hinterland, which they probably settled before the great period of Greek colonization (middle of the 8th cent. BC). The coastal towns are first mentioned by name at the time of Xerxes' march, and later, together with inland towns, as members of the Athenian League. In 432 the majority secede…

Uranopolis

(169 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Οὐρανόπολις/ Ouranópolis). [German version] [1] City on Acte City on Acte (Athos I), founded by Alexarchus, the younger brother of Cassander; according to Plin. HN 4,37 and Str. 7a,1,35, it is to be found on the isthmus of Acte. U. can be connected with the extensive ruins south-west of the modern Ierissos, the extent of which agrees with the size of the city given by Str. loc cit. (30 stadia). U. was probably built c. 315 BC, minted its own coins according to a standard uncommon in Macedon at the time, but does not appear to have lasted long and may have merged wit…

Sane

(205 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Σάνη/ Sánē). [German version] [1] Colony of Andros This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League Colony of Andros on the south side of the isthmus of the Chalcidian Acte (Chalcidice) at the end of the canal built by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,22 f.; 123). As a member of the Delian League, S. paid on average one talent a year in the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1,396 f.). In 432 BC, at the onset of the Peloponnesian War, S. remained on Athens' side and in the winter of 424/423 resisted the attack b…

Potidaea

(785 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ποτείδαια/ Poteídaia). The Corinthian colony of P. was founded c. 600 BC on the Pallene [4] isthmus (western part of the Chalcidian peninsula) allegedly by a son of the tyrant Periander (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 59). It began minting coins still in the 6th cent. and built a…

Aeacides

(161 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Αἰακίδης; Aiakídēs). [German version] [1] Patronym for mythical descendents of Aeacus, the Molossian king Patronym for mythical and historical figures, who traced their lineage back to Aeacus: Peleus, Achilles, Neoptolemus, the Molossian kings [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 270.42 (literature). [German version] [2] Molossian king Son of the Molossian king  Arybbas and father of   Pyrrhus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,5 ff.; Paus. 1,11,1; Diod. Sic. 16,72,1); after the death of Alexander [6] he succ…

Olophyxus

(130 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Ὀλόφυξος; Olóphyxos). City of unknown location on the eastern coast of the Acte peninsula (modern Athos), according to Thuc. 4,109,3f. inhabited by a mixed language population. In the Athenian tribute lists it is listed  from 454/3 BC on with an amount of 2000 drachmai; it remained in the Delian League after 432 and went over to the Spartans only in the winter of 424/3, but could soon be won back. Copper coins are known from the first half of the 4th century, but …

Stolus

(232 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] [1] From Cyrene, c. 100 BC (Στόλος; Stólos). Son of Theon, probably from Cyrene, later honoured with Athenian citizenship; archedéatros in Cyrene in 108 BC, later admiral of Ptolemaeus [15] IX on Cyprus between 107 and 104. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, S. the Admiral, in: Phoenix 26, 1972, 358-368  H. Hauben, Was S. a Cyrenaean?, in: ZPE 25, 1977, 221-226  J. Pouilloux, Salaminiens de Chypre à Delos, in: BCH Suppl. 1, 1973, 406-411. [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στῶλος; Stōlos). Inland cit…

Canastraeum

(47 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Καναστραῖον; Kanastraîon). Cape C., the modern Cape Paliuri, formed the south-eastern tip of the  Pallene peninsula, and is frequently mentioned as a notable coastal landmark by authors and poets, beginning with Herodotus (Hdt. 7,123). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s.v. K., RE 10, 1955f.

Galaei

(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Γαλαῖοι; Galaîoi). The G., who appear in the Athenian tribute lists from 436/435 BC, were the citizens of a town on the western coast of Sithonia, close to the modern Neos Marmaras, referred to by Herodotus (Hdt. 7,122), probably erroneously, as Galepsos in his description of Xerxes' campaign. In 432, the G. seceded from Athens and resettled in the enlarged city of Olynthus, but their town was recaptured by Athens before 425, and declared independent in the peace of Nicias of 421. After that, the sources no longer mention it. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt,…

Zopyrion

(198 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Ζωπυρίων; Zōpyríōn). [German version] [1] From Macedonia, governor of Thrace, second half of the 4th cent. BC Macedonian of unknown origin, who as governor of Thrace allegedly undertook a campaign with 30,000 men across the Danube c. 325 BC, advanced as far as the Borysthenes (modern Dnieper), besieged Olbia [1], but as his army was severely worn down by bad weather, was defeated by the Scythae and killed (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. Epit. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16f. with incorrect dating; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswort…

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Anthemous

(112 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἀνθεμοῦς; Anthemoûs). Region with both a river (modern Vasilikiotikos) and town (near the modern Galatista) of the same name in the north of the  Chalcidice peninsula. It was Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,99,6), and, in the 4th cent. BC, left for a time to the Chalcidian Confederacy (Xen. Hell. 5,2,13); it supplied a cavalry unit to Alexander's army (Arr. An. 2,9,3). According to inscriptions, the town continued to exist into the imperial age. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Recherches sur les marches orient…

Stagira

(212 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Delian League ( Stageira; Στάγιρα/ Stágira, Στάγιρος/ Stágiros, Στάγειρα/ Stágeira, Στάγειρος/ Stágeiros). Colony of Andros, founded in the 7th cent. on the eastern coast of the Chalcidian peninsula, shown to have been to the east of modern Olympias. In the 6th cent., S. minted splendid silver coins, but as a member of the Delian League paid only 1000 drachmai (ATL 1, 412 f.). In 424 BC S. seceded to Brasidas (Thuc. 4,88,2), in 422 it was unsuccessfully assaulted by Cleon [1] (Thuc. 5…

Derris

(28 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Δέρρις; Dérris). Cape at the southern end of Sithonia opposite Cape Canastraeum on Pallene. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 180.

Bottice

(250 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Βοττική; Bottikḗ). Region on the western coast of the Chalcidice peninsula, named after the inhabitants of the Macedonian Bottiaea, driven out of their homeland in around 600 BC, with several towns, of which only Olynthus (lost to the Chalcidicians in 479 BC) has been localized with certainty. In the Athenian League, Spartolus, as the most important town of the B., represented the tribal federation, and from 434/3 BC, further Bottiaean towns are registered in the Athenian tribute …

Phlegra

(99 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Φλέγρα; Phlégra). According to Hdt. 7,123, the Pallene [4] peninsula originally bore the name of P. In antiquity, P. was thought to be the site of the battle between Heracles [1] and the Giants (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 34; Str. 7a,1,25; 27; Apollod. 1,6,1; 2,7,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Παλλήνη). The renaming of the peninsula as Pallene can be traced back to the Achaean Pelleneis who landed at the later town of Scione on their return from Troy (Πελληνεῖς/ Pellēneîs, Polyaenus, Strat. 7,47; cf. Thuc. 4,120,1). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s.v. Ph., RE 20, 264f.

Aphytis

(136 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League On the east coast of Pallene south of Potidaea. A member of the  Delian League during the 5th cent. BC, A. remained loyal to Athens even after 432 BC; A. received concessions in exchange (ATL 2,75, D 21), but as a consequence was besieged by Lysander (Plut. Lys. 20,7; Paus. 3,18,3). As a member of the Chalcidian League for a time during the 1st half of the 4th cent. (Syll.3 135), A. became part of the Macedonian realm. A. briefly re…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Arybbas

(162 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἀρύββας; Arýbbas). Son of Alcetas (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,5; Paus. 1,11,1ff.), he became the sole king of the Molossi in about 360 BC after the death of his brother Neoptolemus, with whom he seems to have shared rule, married Neoptolemus' daughter Troas and took over the guardianship of her siblings  Alexander [6] and  Olympias. No later than 357, he gave the latter as a wife to the Macedonian king Philip II (Just. E…

Sermaei

(52 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σερμαῖοι; Sermaîoi). A city, mentioned from 450/449 until 432/1 in the Athenian tribute lists (ATL 398 f.) and reassessed in 421 BC, probably to be located on the western side of the Chalcidian peninsula; its later history is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 223-225.

Strepsa

(128 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στρέψα/ Strépsa). A city - probably in the west of the region Anthemus to the south of Basilica - first mentioned for the time of Xerxes' campaign (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 61) and from 454/3 BC in the Athenian tribute lists with an unchanging tribute of one talent (ATL 1, 412 f.). In 432 S. seceded from Athens and probably could not be won back. For one last time, S. is mentioned in Aeschin. Leg. 27 among the cities conquered in 370 BC from Calindoea by Pausanias [5], the pretender to the Macedonian throne,. Zahrnt, Michael (…

Alorus

(85 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἄλωρος; Álōros). Macedonian city located south of the  Haliacmon near Cypsela, hometown of  Ptolemaeus (son-in-law of Macedonian king Amyntas [3] III) and of the trierarch Pantauchus (Alexander's Indus fleet) [1]. Mentioned in ancient geographical literature (cf. Pomponius Mela 2,35); way-station in the imperial period. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Berve 2, no. 604. N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia 1, 1972, 131-135 M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Two Studies in Ancient Macedonian Topography, 1987, 37-40 F. Papazoglou, Les vill…

Poseidium

(388 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ποσείδιον/ Poseídion). [German version] [1] Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios on the coast of Triphylia Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios with a busy harbour on the coast of Triphylia (probably meant in  Hom. Od. 3,4 ff.; Str. 8,3,13; 3,16 f.; 3,20) in the Klidi coastal pass at the foot of the Kaiapha mountains, exact location not known. The P. was once the central sanctuary of Triphylia with a festival of its own. The cult statue of Poseidon at the time of Pausanias (2nd cent. AD) was in Elis [2] (Paus. 6,25,6). Samicum Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 198…

Athos

(315 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἄθως; Áthōs). [German version] I. Classical and Hellenistic era Highest elevation on the largely forested peninsula of the same name, which in antiquity was mostly called Acte; it is almost 50 km long and averages 6-8 km wide. On its south-east tip a Persian fleet was wrecked in 492 BC and then in 411 BC a Spartan one; its isthmus was penetrated before the advance of Xerxes. The inhabitants of the peninsula (origins largely unknown) were rumoured to be especially long-lived (Makrobioi). The mostly small…

Sinus

(64 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σίνος; Sínos). City in Bottice, known only from the Athenian tribute lists, where it appears four times between 434/3 and 421/0 BC (ATL 1,406 f.). A document from the time of Cassander found in Potidaea (Syll.3 332) mentions estates in the area of Sinaea. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Une donation du roi Lysimaque, 1988  M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 230 f.

Olynthus

(784 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Ionic | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ὄλυνθος; Ólynthos). In mythology, O. was either a son of the river god Strymon, who died hunting at the site of the future town of O. in the west of Chalcidice, or a son of Hercules. The location of the town named after him, on two elongated hills on the east bank of the Vatunia River, was established by American excavations (1928-1934). The southerly hill was set…

Scapsa

(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σκάψα; Skápsa). The Scapsaei, who feature in the Athenian tribute lists (ATL 1, 408 f.) from 452/1 BC onwards, may be identified with the inhabitants of the city of Campsa, located by Hdt. 7,123,2 in Crusis, to the northwest of modern Nea Iraklia. In 432 they seceded from Athens, but were won back and there is evidence of their being members of the Delian League in 415/4. In the middle of the 4th century S. was a member of the Chalcidian League, before the city was conquered by Philippus [4] II. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 197…

Pallene

(683 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Παλλήνη/ Pallḗnē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the giant Alcyoneus Also called Palene (Παλήνη/ Palḗnē): Suda s.v. Ἀλκυονίδες ἡμέραι. According to Hegesander (or Agesander: FHG 4, 422, fr. 46), daughter of the giant Alcyoneus [1], who, along with her sisters (Alcyonides [2]), threw herself into the ocean from the Canastraeum, only to be turned into a kingfisher ( alkyṓn, after her father) by Amphitrite (Suda l.c.; Eust. ad Hom. Il. 1,563, p. 776,33-39 (according to Pausanias); Apostolius Paroemiographus 2,20). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography P.M.C. Forbes Irving, Metamo…

Spartolus

(184 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Delian League (Σπάρτωλος/ Spárt ōlos). The most significant city in the territory of the Bottiaei, hard to locate exactly, first mentioned in the Athenian Tribute Lists (ATL 1, 412 f.), initially with two talents, from 434/3 BC with three. S. seceded from Athens in 432 (Thuc. 1,58,1) and participated on the side of its opponents in the Peloponnesian War. In the summer of 429 the Athenians suffered a defeat at S.; the following wint…

Tharyps

(120 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θάρυψ/ Tháryps). The T. mentioned in 429 BC as being under the guardianship of a Sabylinthus (Thuc. 2,80,6) is the first undoubtedly historical king of the Molossi. According to Plut. Pyrrhus 1,4 he made a name for himself as the first Molossian ruler by providing the cities with Greek customs, education and benign laws; according to Just. Epit. 17,3,9-13 he was raised in Athens and was the first to institute laws, a council, annually changing officials and a rei publicae forma ('state structure'). Accordingly, the monarch-led federal state may have been c…

Mecyberna

(178 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Μηκύβερνα/ Mēkýberna). M., which is located about 20 stadia east of Olynthus on the northern coast of the Gulf of Torone, is first mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 150 and in the context of Xerxes' campaign (Hdt. 7,122). After 446 BC it is recorded in the Athenian tribute lists. In 432, M. revolted against Athens, was dissolved as a pólis and lost its population to Olynthus, but was reconquered before 425. In the ‘Peace of Nicias’ ( Peloponnesian War), its independence from Olynthus was establi…

Sithones

(90 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σιθῶνες/ Sithônes, Σίθωνες/ Síthōnes). The S., counted by Str. 7a,1,11 as a group of the Edones in Thrace, may have been the original inhabitants of Sithonia and its hinterland, driven back by Chalcidians from Euboea [1] colonising the region. Their relationship to the Sithoni mentioned in Plin. HN 4,41 on the coast of the Black Sea is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Actes de vente de la Chalcidique centrale, 1988, 52 f.  Id., Grecs et barbares dans les cités de l'arrière-pays de la Chalcidique, in: Klio 71, 1989, 60-65.

Acanthus

(323 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Ἄκανθος; Ákanthos). [German version] [1] Colony of  Andros This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League Colony of  Andros on the east coast of the  Chalcidice peninsula near the modern Ierissos; in the Persian War (480/79 BC) an important Persian base (Hdt. 7,22; 115 ff.); later a member of the  Delian League, seceded in 424 BC (Thuc. 4,84-88) and was also able to hold its own against the Chalcidian Confederacy (Syll.3 1,135). From 349/8 BC Macedonian In the Second Macedonian War, A. was p…

Perdiccas

(866 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Περδίκκας; Perdíkkas). [German version] [1] Founder of the Macedonian kingdom According to Herodotus (8,137-139), P. was the 7th-cent. BC founder of the Macedonian royal house and the Macedonian kingdom, whose beginnings lay in the region of the subsequent royal seat of Aegae [1]. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Die Entwicklung des makedonischen Reiches bis zu den Perserkriegen, in: Chiron 14, 1984, 345-348. [German version] [2] P. II Macedonian king, c. 450-413 BC Son of Alexander [2] I, king of Macedonia c. 450-413 BC, asserted himself against his brothers …

Thyssus

(124 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θυσσός/ Thyssós). City on the western coast of the Acte peninsula (Chalkidice); remains between the Zographou and Konstamonitou monasteries. It appears in the Athenian lists of tribute quotas with a tribute between 4,000 and 9,000 drachmai, remained in the Delian League (cf. ATL 1, 286 f.) even after 432 BC, passed to Brasidas in the winter of 424/3 (Thuc. 4,109), but seems to have been conquered back in the following year by Cleon [1]. In the summer of 421, T., described in Thuc. 5,35,1 as an ally of the Athenian…

Aenea

(157 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (ᾌνεια; Áineia). Situated on the north-west coast of the  Chalcidice peninsula, close to the modern Nea Moudania, of unknown origin. Taking coins as evidence, A. was seen as a foundation by  Aeneas [1] as early as 500 BC. In the 5th cent. BC, it joined the  Delian League, and remained a member beyond 432 BC. At the latest in 349/8 BC, it became Macedonian. In 315 BC, it lost a number of its inhabitants to the new foundation of Thessalonica, but continued to exist. A. is further mentioned on a Delphian list of theorodokoi (a…
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