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Agrianes

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγριᾶνες; Agriânes). Thracian or Paeonian tribe on the upper reaches of the  Strymon. As subjects of  Sitalces, they took part in the campaigns against  Perdiccas II in 429 BC (Thuc. 2,96); close relations with  Philippus II (FGH 115, Theopomp. F 145) and  Alexander III [4]; the latter was supported by their king  Langarus (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-10). In Hellenistic times, they often served as mercenaries (Liv. 33,18; Pol. 2,65; 10,42). Ousted by the Dentheletae in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Ch. Danov, Altthrakie…

Melas Kolpos

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (‘Black Gulf’) Now the Gulf of Saros between the Thracian Chersonesus [1] and the mouth of the River Hebrus (Str. 7, fr. 52). From the south it could be controlled from Alopeconnesus, and from the north from Aenus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peucini, Peuci

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πευκῖνοι; Peukînoi). Important tribe of the Bastarnae (Str. 7,3,17; Plin. HN 4,100: Peucini Bastarnae; occasionally even used to refer to the Bastarnae as a whole, cf. Tac. Germ. 46; name probably a foreign expression derived from Peuce) in the north east of Dacia (Daci), east of the Troglodytae in the Danube delta (Ptol. 3,10,9). They shared characteristics with the Goti (Iord. Get. 91 for AD 248), and took part in the raid on the Aegean in AD 269, which Claudius [III 2] halted at Naissus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography L. Schmidt, Geschichte der…

Panda

(37 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] [1] Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis, three days' march from Tanais [2] (Tac. Ann. 12,16,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] see Sondergötter see Sondergötter

Cadusii

(113 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καδούσιοι; Kadoúsioi, Lat. Cadusii). Iranian group of nomadic tribes in the mountains between Media and the coast of the Caspian Sea, neighbours of the Anariaci and Albani (Str. 11,8,1). The Pantimati and Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) possibly also belonged to the C. The  Achaemenids [2] had to battle against several revolts of the C.: in 408/7 BC, Artaxerxes II fought unsuccessfully (Xen. Hell. 2,1,13), but Artaxerxes III Ochus defeated and pacified them shortly after coming to power (359 B…

Budini

(72 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Βουδῖνοι; Boudînoi). A tribe, probably Iranian, who live east of the Tanais river, north of the Sauromates, and west of the Thyssagetae (Hdt. 4,21f.). Their capital was Gelonus: mixed Budinian and Greek population, temple of Greek deities, regular feasts in honour of Dionysus (Hdt. 4,108). The B. joined the Scythian coalition against the Persians (Hdt. 4,102; 120; 122; 136). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…

Mesambria/Mesembria

(837 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] City on the west coast of the Black Sea This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Apollo | Moesi, Moesia (Μεσ(σ)αμβρία, Μεσ(σ)ημβρία/ Me(s)sambría, Me(s)sembría). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] I. Location A city on the west coast of the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos), situated at the northern entrance to the bay of Burgas, on a small rocky peninsula, 850 m long and 300 m wide, now known as Nesebâr (in modern Bulgaria). It is connected with …

Rhoxolani

(277 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥωξολανοί/ Rhōxolanoí, Lat. Roxolani). Sarmatic tribe or group of tribes (Sarmatae; Str. 2,5,7, cf. 7,2,4; 7,3,17 in connection with Hipparchus [6], Eratosthenes [2]) that lived in the period approximately up to the time of Christ in the steppes between Tanais (Don) and Borysthenes (Dniepr) north of the Maeotis (Plin. HN 4,80; Ptol. 3,5,19; 24 f.). In the battle against Diophantus [3], general of Mithridates [6] VI, the R. fought under their king Tasius on the side of Palacus, king of the Scythians (113 BC?; Syll.3 709). In the 1st cent. AD, the R. settled on th…

Abritus

(178 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | (Ἄβριττος; Ábrittos). Roman fortress and civilian settlement, 2 km east of the modern Razgrad, Bulgaria; pre-Roman Thracian settlement, probably the administrative centre of the strategia Rysiké under the last of the Thracian kings (IGBulg 743). From 45 BC part of  Moesia inferior; from no later than AD 78 encampment of auxilia (CIL XVI 22); in the 2nd cent. AD garrison of the cohors II Lucensium (CIL III 13727); strongly fortified in the 4th cent. AD. Inscriptions confirm a civilian settleme…

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Astae

(213 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀσταί; Astaí). Thracian tribe in south-east Thrace, between Apollonia [2] and  Salmydessus in the Strandža mountains, with the royal capital of  Bizye. Politically independent after the decline of Odrysian rule at the end of the 4th cent. BC, the A. increasingly gained in importance following the withdrawal of the Celts in 278 BC (Ps.-Scymn. 729; Pol. 13,10,10). They had good relations with the Greek colonies (IGBulg 312). The A. fought alongside the Maduateni, the  Caeni, and the…

Spartocus

(324 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σπάρτοκος/ Spártokos). Name of a king from the Bosporanian dynasty of the Spartocids (Regnum Bosporanum). Contrary to earlier opinion he was of Iranian origin and not Thracian. [German version] [1] S. I. (438/7-433/2 BC; in Diod. Sic.12,31: written as Spartacus). Founder of the Spartocids dynasty. He removed the Archaeanactidae from power, probably through a coup and without changing the state’s structure as an hereditary tyranny. The culture remained purely Greek, which is in contradiction with the assumption that S. was the…

Thraci, Thracia

(5,334 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Boroffka, Nikolaus | Z.H.A.
(Θρᾷκες/ Thrâikes, Θρῇκες/ Thrêikes; Θρᾴκη/ Thrâikē, Θρῄκη/ Thrêikē): the 'Thracians' and the country 'Thrace' settled by them; Lat. Thraci, Thracia. [German version] I. Name Thraci (Th.) is a Greek collective term, based on linguistic and cultural homogeneity, for the population of the northern Balkan Peninsula from the north coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea, also called the 'Thracian Sea': Str. 1,2,20) to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]; ancient authors often include the territory as far as the northern Carpathians), an…

Doriscus

(133 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars (Δορίσκος; Dorískos, Doriscum). Settlement in the west of the Hebrus estuary (modern Evros) in the plain of the same name (Hdt. 7,59). In 512 BC it was laid out by Darius I as the starting point of his campaign against the Greeks and as a provisions storehouse, and it was also used in this way by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,25, 108; inspection of troops by Xerxes: 7,59f.; Plin. HN 4,43). The commander of the Persian garrison was Maskame…

Theodosia

(169 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Θεοδοσία/ Theodosía; modern Feodosiya). City on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I) in a fertile plain, with an excellent harbour which could contain 100 ships (Str. 7,4,4), founded c. 700 BC by colonists from Miletos [2]. T. minted coins autonomously c. 500 BC. Conquered in the first half of the 4th cent. BC by Leucon [3] I, T. was subsequently the westernmost polis of the Regnum Bosporanum (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 30). The city was an import…

Bizye

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | (Βιζύη; Bizýē). Town on the south-western slopes of the Strandăza mountains, modern Vize/Turkey; residence of the Odrysian-Sapaean kings probably from the 3rd cent. BC, possibly since the destruction of  Seuthopolis (Str. 7 fr. 48). At the time of Trajan founded as a peregrine town of the strategia of Astike. The territory of B. encompassed i.a. the mines around Mălko Tarnovo, and bordered on that of  Deultum. Finding place of autonomous and imperial coins; B. is often mentioned …

Deultum

(300 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (Δεβελτός; Debeltós). Settlement c. 25 km west of  Burgas, modern Debelt/Bulgaria. Traces from the late Bronze Age, and afterwards Thracian Hallstatt settlement that later flourished because of its trade with the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. D. was connected with the sea via Lake Mandra which in antiquity stretched further south than it does today. Attic goods of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, Hellenistic c…

Dantheletae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δανθηλῆται/ Danthēlêtai; also Dentheleti). Thracian tribe inhabiting the area around the upper reaches of the  Strymon and the area to the west reaching as far as Axius. Earliest mention was by Theopompus (FGrH 115 F 221) for 340/339 BC. Philip V twice laid waste to their territory on his Thracian campaigns (184 and 181 BC: Liv. 39,53,12; 40,22,9; Pol. 23,8,4). In 88 BC, the D. acted as allies of Rome in the quelling of a Macedonian revolt. They attacked this province in 86/5 together with the Maedi, Dardani and Scordisci. In 57 and 56, the proconsul of Macedonia, L. Cal…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Tyle

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…

Tempyra

(96 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέμπυρα; Témpyra). Settlement on the Thracian coast of the Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos) to the east of Sale; founded by Samothrace. T. was a station on the Via Egnatia (Str. 7a,1,48;  It. Ant. 322,3: Timpiro;  It. Burd. 602,8: mutatio Ad Umimpara), the precise site is unknown (Str. 7, fr. 47 f.). Near T. there was a narrow unforested pass, at which pro-consul Manlius [I 24] Vulso, on his return march from Asia Minor in 188 BC, had to fight the Trausi (Liv. 38,41,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 489  Müller, 74.

Elaeus

(251 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἐλαιοῦς; Elaioûs). [German version] [1] City on the south of the Thracian Chersonesus This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Athenian League (Second) City in the south of the Thracian Chersonesus near modern Eceabat (Turkey), foundation of the Athenians in the 6th cent. BC to control the southern access to the Propontis, important port town. Used by Militiades the Younger as the base for expeditions against Lemnos and Lesbos (Hdt. 6,140). E. was used as an achorage by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,22). The sanctua…

Abdera

(343 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] City on Cape Bouloustra This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Ἄβδηρα; Ábdēra). City on Cape Bouloustra, in the Aegean, 16 km north-east of the mouth of the Nestus; founded and fortified in 656 BC by Ionian  Clazomenae; destroyed by Thracians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC. Archaeologically attested archaic graves. From 545 BC, a second fou…

Cercinitis

(152 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Patricius (Κερκινῖτις; Kerkinîtis). Ionian foundation from the 6th cent. BC in the north-western part of the Crimea near the modern village of Evpatorija (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 70; Str. 12,3,18; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 19,5), from the middle of the 4th cent. BC in the possession of Chersonesus [3] [1. 352] and closely linked with it; second largest town with an important port, agriculture and crafts, also Doric inscriptions [1. 339]. Fr…

Siraci

(162 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιρακοί/ Sirakoí, Latin Sirachi). Sarmatian tribe, which inhabited the steppe regions to the west of the Caspian Sea between the Maeotae and the Thatei (Mela 1,114). Under their king Ariphanes they supported Eumelus [4] against his brothers (Diod. 20,22: here  Θρᾷκες is better read as Σ.). From the 1st cent. AD onwards the S. expanded southwards, where they are recorded on the Hypanis [1] (Ptol. 5,9,17: Σερακά). Their cavalry supported Pharnaces [2] II (Str. 11,5,8) and, under their…

Getae

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γέται; Gétai). Greek term for the Thracian tribes south of the Lower Danube in modern Dobrudža and in the hinterland of the north-western Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast. Their region shows traces of settlement from the Stone Age onwards and was the centre of highly developed cultures from the time of the Copper Stone Age (cf. Varna, Durankulag). On the basis of the written sources and the language remnants attested in the Onomastikon, the G. are shown to be the northern Thr…

Aigos Potamos (Potamoi)

(78 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Αἰγὸς ποταμός; Aigòs potamós). Settlement on the Thracian  Chersonesus opposite Lampsacus. Width of the straits at that point c. 15 stades (Xen. Hell. 2,1,21). Location of Athens' defeat by  Lysander in 405 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,105). Also the point where the stream of the same name in the tribal territory of the  Dolonci flows into the sea. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Coralli

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κόραλλοι; Kóralloi). Tribe in the region of the  Getae, documented in literature only for the last cent. of the Roman Republic and the 1st cent. of the Imperial period (Ov. Pont. 4,2,37; 8,83; Str. 7,5,12). Appianus (Mith. 293) mentions the C. separately from the Iazyges and Thracians, but more likely meant the Sarmatae or Scythae instead. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. K., RE XI 2, 1377.

Saii

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Thracian tribe (Σάϊοι/ Sáïoi). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aegeis across from Samothrace (cf. Archil. fr. 6 Diehl; Str. 10,2,17; 12,3,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. Saii (1), RE 1 A, 1757  T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija a n trakijskite plemena do 3. v.pr.n.e., 1983, 51, 101. [German version] [2] Celtic tribe Celtic tribe, later the name of its main city, present-day Sées, Dépt. Orne (Notitia Galliarum 2,6: civitas Saiorum; Commentarii notarum Tironianarum 87,63; cf. CIL XIII 630),…

Rhombites

(141 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ῥομβίτης/ Rhombítēs). Two rivers flowing from the east into the Maeotis, where they are abundant in fish, distinguished by their epithets 'the Great' and 'the Lesser' (Str. 11,2,4; cf. Ptol. 5,9,3 f.; 26; Amm. Marc. 22,8,29). [German version] [1] R. Megas (ὁ μέγας Ῥ./ ho mégas R., 'the Great R.'). Further north, modern Jeja; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from the mouth of the Tanais (Don). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. Elatton (ὁ ἐλάττων Ῥ./ ho eláttōn R., 'the Lesser R.'). Further south; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from R. [1…

Harpasus

(314 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ἅρπασος; Hárpasos). [German version] [1] Southern tributary of the Maeander in Caria Southern tributary of the Maeander in Caria (Plin. HN 2,210; 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,15; Quint. Smyrn. 10,141-146; Steph. Byz. s.v. H.), modern Akçay, narrow like a canyon along its middle course, today with a dam further south (Kemer dam). Old Ionian settlement area, ruins of ancient settlements near its banks (e.g. Neapolis, Harpasa, modern Arpaz near Esenköy). In the summer of 228 BC,  Attalus [4] I beat Antiochus  Hierax at t…

Drusipara

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δρουσιπάρα; Drousipára). Important station on the Amphipolis ─ Hadrianopolis ─ Byzantium road in south-east Thrace, east of Büyük Kariştiran/Turkey (earliest reference Ptol. 3,11,7; also in It. Ant. 137,7; 323,3; It. Burd. 569; Theophanes, 1,234,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Cabyle

(323 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Καβύλη, Kabýlē). City near today's Kabile on the bend of the river Tonzo in the district of Jambol/Bulgaria. Traces of settlements have been documented from the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. During the mid 5th cent., C. developed intensive connections to the Aegean region. A mountain sanctuary with Cybele relief was created on the acropolis. In 342/41 BC, C. was conquered by Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,44; 10,14)…

Aorsi

(121 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀορσοι; Áorsoi). Group of tribes of the Sarmatae in the steppe region of the west and north coast of the  Caspian Sea, as far as the Maeotian ( Maeotis) river Achardeus and the lower reaches of the Tanais (Ptol. 3,5,10; Plin. HN 4,80). Strabo also mentions οἱ δ ̔̃ἄνω Ἄορσοι ( hoi d' ánō Áorsoi 11,5,8). They were known through their lively trade with  Media and  Armenia; their king Spadines provided 20,000 mounted men for Pharnaces (Str. 11,5,8). In 50 BC their prince Eunones supported Rome against the Siraci (Tac. Ann. 13,15). It was from the A. that the  Alani sprang. von Bred…

Cardia

(294 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Persian Wars (Καρδία; Kardía). Town on the northern face of the Thracian Chersonesus on the  Melas Kolpos (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Ps.-Scymn. 698f.; Str. 7a,1,52;54), not localized (the modern Bakla Liman?), described in Dem. Or. 23,182 as the gateway to Thrace. It was founded towards the end of the 7th cent. BC by Miletus, possibly with colonists from Clazomenae (Str. loc. cit), and re-established by  Miltiades with Attic coloni…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Madytus

(138 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάδυτος; Mádytos). City on the Thracian Chersonesus between Elaeus and Sestus, founded by Lesbos (6th cent. BC; Scyl. 67, Ps.-Scymn. 709; Str. 7, fr. 55). North of M., Xerxes had the pontoon bridge built over the Hellespontus (Hdt. 7,33; 9,120). In 465 BC, M. was a member of the Delian League (Plut. Cimon 4); a few tributes are recorded for 443/440 BC (ATL 1,336f.). In the Peloponnesian War, M. was used as a harbour by the Athenian fleet (Xen. Hell. 1,1,3). Conquered in 200 BC by …

Criu Metopon

(72 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κριοῦ μέτωπον, ‘Ram's Forehead’). The designation of the two southernmost peaks of the Taurian  Chersonesus [2]: Cape Capyc and Cape Ai Todor (Plin. HN 4,86; Ps.-Scymn. 953; Ptol. 3,6;2) opposite Cap Carambis in Paphlagonia. According to legend the golden ram carried  Phrixus from there to the Colchi (Ps.-Plut. De fluviis 14,4). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. D. Blavatskij, Očerki noennogo dela v antičnih gosudarstvah severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1954, 133f.

Pactye

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πακτύη/ Paktýē). Fortress on the Propontic coast of Chersonesus [1], to the south of present-day Bolayır Iskelesi (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Str. 7a,1,52; 54; 56). Here stood the east end of the wall which ran from Miltiades [1] via the Chersonesus [1] to Cardia (Hdt. 6,36; Scymn. 711). Alcibiades [3] retreated here in 407 BC after the loss of his position as strategos (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4; Diod. Sic. 13,74,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Müller 2, 895f.  B. Isaak, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest, 1988.

Mygdones

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μυγδόνες; Mugdónes). Thracian inhabitants of the Mygdonia [1] region (Μυγδονία/ Mygdonía; Macedonia) between the lower Axios, the Gulf of Thermae, the Bolbe and the Kruša and Bogdanska mountains in the east (Hdt. 7,123f.; 127; Strab. 7a,1,11; 36). At the time of Herodotus (5th cent. BC) it was home to groups of Paeones, Sitones and Crestones; according to Thucydides 2,99,4 the Edones were expelled from Mygdonia by the Macedonian kings (after 479 BC? [4. 15]), at the time of Strabo it was i…

Maiotae

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶται; Maiôtai). Greek collective name for the tribes on the east coast of the Maeotis and in the lower and middle reaches of Kuban/north-west Caucasus (Hdt. 4,123; Str. 11,2,2-4; 11). These probably include Iranian and Caucasian tribes of the Sindi, Cercetae, Toretae, Dandarii and Psessii among others. Farming and fishing formed the primary basis of their livelihood (Str. 11,2,4). They traded actively with Tanais in particular. The M. had to pay tributes to the Regnum Bosporanu…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Hygiaeon

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑγιαίων; Hygiaíōn). Ruler of the Kingdom of the Bosporus ( Regnum Bosporanum), c. 220-200 BC. Successor of  Leucon II, but not as king, rather as árchōn, also portrayed without a royal diadem. Maybe not a Spartocid. On brick stamps and coins ἄρχοντος Ὑγιαίοντος. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporan. Reich, 1971, 93, 95.

Pangaeum

(281 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγγαιον/ Pángaion, Παγγαῖον ὄρος/ Pangaîon óros). A mountain chain (up to 1956 m in height) forested in Antiquity, extending parallel to the northern Aegaean coast between the lower Strymon and Kavalla (25 km long, 16 km wide) isolated from other mountain ridges; still called P. today. With its rich gold and silver deposits it was constantly in the centre of disputes (Str. 7a,1,34). Ore production was probably begun in the 7th cent. BC by the Pieres, the Odomanti and the Satrae (Hdt. 7,112), but also by Thasos and the cities of its peraía . At a very early stage Athen…

Alani

(484 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλανοί; Alanoí). Iranian alliance of tribes north of the  Caspian Sea, from the Caucasus to the Tanais. A. appear in sources since the end of the Roman republic in place of the Sarmatian tribes. During a campaign against  Mithridates VI, Pompey came upon A. (Luc. 8,133). Since the end of the 1st cent. AD there were invasions into Media and Armenia; under Hadrian (AD 117 to 138), they threatened Cappadocia. For their culture, see Lucian, Tox. 51; Amm. Marc. 30,2,3; Iord. Get. 24. A…

Seuthopolis

(184 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Diadochi and Epigoni (Σευθόπολις/ Seuthópolis). Residence city of king Seuthes [4] III of Thrace, 3,5 km to the south of modern Koprinka (municipality of Kazanlak in Bulgaria) at the confluence of the Goljama Varovica and the Tonzos (modern Tundža). A city wall of 890 m enclosed a pentagon (orthogonal city layout) of 5 hectares. In the agora there was a temple to Dionysus, with a great altar in its centre. In the northern part of S. there was a fortress defended by a wall of its own (4620 m2) with the residence …

Moschi

(112 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μόσχοι; Mόschoi). Caucasian tribe between Colchis and Armenia. The Moschikḗ was situated in the hinterland of Phasis (Μοσχική/ Moschikḗ, Str. 11,2,17), the Moschian mountains were to the south of Colchis (Str. 11,2,15; Moschorum tractus, Plin. HN 6,29). Hdt. 7,78 describes the M.'s primitive weapons (wooden helmets, small shields and lances). Under Dareius [1] I. and Xerxes the M. were part of the 19th Persian satrapy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 288). A shrine to Leucothea and the so-called oracle of Phrixus, which was plu…
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