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Pilos

(175 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πῖλος/ pîlos). Originally the term for the felt lining of helmets (Hom. Il. 10,265), shoes and caps (Hes. Op. 542-546) and the protective part of the armour (Thuc. 4,34,4), later for felt blankets (Hdt. 4,73 and 75) and shoes of felt (Cratinus 100 CAF), but esp. for a conical headdress (Hes. Op. 546, Anth. Pal. 6,90 and 199, cf. Hdt. 3,12; 7,61; 62; 92 on the felt mitres and tiaras of eastern peoples). The last resembles half an egg (Lycoph. 506), at times with a loop on the point for hanging up or carrying by the finger. The pîlos was worn by craftsmen (in pictorial represen…

Neck ornaments

(655 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Greece Neck ornaments famously play a role in the myth of Eriphyle, as they do in that of Scylla (Aesch. Choe. 613-622). The comedy Plókion by Menander also deserves mention (cf. Plut. Mor. 2,141d; Gell. 2,23,6). In Aristaen. 1,1 the stones of the necklace are organised in such a way that they give the name of Lais. Neck ornaments (ἁλύσιον/ halúsion, κάθημα/ káthēma, μάννος/ mánnos, μανιάκης/ maniákēs, ὅρμος/ hormos, πλόκιον/ plókoin) as a chain or a rope, with and without pendants, have survived in great numbers throughout the Mediterranean since…

Kekryphalos

(246 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κεκρύφαλος, -άλιον; kekrýphalos, -álion, Lat. reticulum), hair net, hair cloth. Mentioned already in Hom. Il. 22,469 as part of the female costume, the kekryphalos was used to cover the hair or parts thereof. Greek (cf. e.g. Aristoph. Thesm. 257) and Roman women wore a kekryphalos not only at night to keep their carefully arranged hairstyle together, but also during the day (Varro, Ling. 130; Non. 14,32 et al.). Men who occasionally were seen to wear a kekryphalos were criticized (Ath. 15,681c; Juv. 2,96) and perceived as effeminate. As a cloth, the kekryphalos could b…

Paludamentum

(262 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Rectangularly cut, mostly purple but also red or white, Roman cloak of linen or wool, corresponding to the Greek chlamys; Agrippina's gold-braided paludamentum is, however, unusual (Plin. HN. 33,63). Initially paludamenta were worn only by Roman generals and other high-ranking officers; they advanced in the imperial period to insignia of Imperial ruling power. Paludamenta were part of the battle dress of generals and emperors (cf. Varro Ling. 7,37) and were not to be worn within the limits of the city of Rome (Tac. Hist. 2,89); thu…

Fimbriae

(153 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κροσσοί/ krossoí; θύσανοι/ thýsanoi). These were actually the thread ends left at the edge of the cloth that ─ with several knotted together or hanging individually ─ decorated materials of all kinds such as cloths, blankets and clothes. They could also be worked separately and sewed on. Thus, for example, the ταραντῖνον ( tarantînon), a luxury garment, or the rica, a Roman head scarf, are explicitly defined as trimmed with fimbriae (Fest. 288,10; Non. 549,9). The Oriental and Egyptian garments already show evidence of fimbriae; they are also documented in Greek…

Trigon

(122 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Roman ball game, recorded for the Imperial period; it was played on the Field of Mars  (Hor. Sat. 1,6,126) and in baths (Petron. 27,1-3). Three players (Mart. 7,72,9) were needed for trigon; they positioned themselves in a triangle and played one or more small balls between themselves, either catching them (Mart. 12,82,4) or hitting them with both hands so that they were passed back to the thrower or to the third player (Mart. 14,46,1), sometimes with such violence that the palms …

Applause

(607 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κρότος, ἐπικροτεῖν [ krótos, epikroteîn], plausus, plaudere). The impulsive and impromptu expression of praise and approval, also of rejection, cursing and reprimand communicated through words, sounds, gestures and actions; these forms of expressing approval are so closely related to   acclamatio that it is often difficult to distinguish between them [1]. In the ancient world, the most frequent gesture used to express approval was the clapping of hands, for example, in the theatre, during music, danc…

Kalathos

(323 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ κάλαθος/ ho kálathos; diminutive τὸ καλάθιον/ tò kaláthion and ὁ/τὸ καλαθίσκος, -ν/ ho/tó kalathiskos, -n; Lat. calathus). A basket which opens like a blossom, made from a variety of materials such as clay, wood, precious metals (Hom. Od. 4,125). It can also be woven from rods [1]. It was used as a working basket by female wool spinners (e.g. Juv. 2,54; Ov. Ars am. 1,693 and 2,219) - and as such is a requisite of scenes of the women's quarters (e.g. Rhyton London, BM E 773 [2]) - or as a household receptacle for cheese, milk, or oil, which made the kalathos a common wedding pre…
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