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Actisanes

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] According to Diod. Sic. 1,60, Ethiopian king who freed Egypt from the rule of one Amasis and founded Rhinocoloura (El-Arish) as a penal colony. Neither his historicity nor his chronological position are certain. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Burton, Diod. Sic., Book I, 1972, 180 f.

Somtutefnakht

(58 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Zm-twy-ty.f-nḫtt). Head of the Egyptian city of Heracleopolis Magna c. 660-630 BC, naval commander and supervisor of Upper Egypt, related to the royal house, an important ally of Psammetichus [1] I when the latter extended his power to Middle and Upper Egypt. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography G. Vittmann, Der demotische Papyrus Rylands 9, 1998, 708-713.

Necropolis

(80 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νεκρόπολις/ Nekrópolis). In Str. 17,1,10; 14 the name of the extended cemetery district with gardens, tombs and embalming places to the west of the city wall of Alexandria [1], attested from the 3rd cent. BC until the Arab conquest. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Adriani, Repertorio d'arte dell' Egitto greco-romano, Serie C 1-2, 1966  P.M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, vols. 1-3, 1972  G. Grimm, Alexandria. Die erste Königsstadt der hellenistischen Welt, 1998  H. Kees, s.v. Nekropolis, RE 16, 2233f.

Sais

(285 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάϊς/ Sáïs). City in the western delta of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, Egyptian Zw, capital city of the 5th administrative district of Lower Egypt, the modern (village of) Ṣā l-Hạǧar. As the main cult centre of the goddess Neith, S. was already important in the 1st half of the 3rd millennium. Politically, however, it did not come to the fore until the 1st millennium BC, when the Libyan rulers residing there attempted to expand their area of power beginning c. 730. Initially repelled by the Nubians, their successors Necho [1] I and Psammetichus [1] I in th…

Sebennytus

(164 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σεβεννῦτος/ Sebennŷtos). Town in the central Nile Delta, on the Damiette arm of the Nile, Egyptian Ṯb-nṯr, Assyrian Ṣabnūti, modern Samannūd. As a city (its name was also used to denote the 12th district of Lower Egypt) S. is not recorded before the 8th century BC - as the residence of local Libyan princes. In the second half of the 1st millennium BC it became one of the most important towns of the Delta. The kings of the 30th dynasty (380-342)…

Esna

(194 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Old Egytpian Jwnyt, later ( T)- Snj). Place in Upper Egypt, c. 60 km south of Luxor on the western bank of the Nile. Named in Greek λάτων (πόλις) after the latus fish, much venerated in cult practice. Today's city E. stands on the old settlement, therefore only the temple (9 m beneath today's level) is accessible. The first reference to E. comes from the 1st intermediate period; E. did not become significant, however, until the New Kingdom as the departure point for a caravan route to Nubi…

Tutankhamun

(166 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Egyptian king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1333-1323 BC, Egyptian Twt-nḫ-Jmn ('Living Image of Amun'), throne name Nb-ḫprw-R, who ascended the throne while still a child. T. was the son of a king (presumably Amenophis [4] IV = Amenhotep IV); T. married a daughter of Amenophis IV and Nefertiti). The restoration of the old cults (primarily that of Amun) begun by his predecessor Smenkhkare was continued under T., and the religious policies of Amenophis [4] IV were abandoned completely. During the …

Schoinos

(117 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (σχοῖνος/ schoînos, 'rush, reed'), Egyptian measure of length, which according to Hdt. 2,6 corresponds to 60 stadia (Stadion [1]), but according to Str. 17,1,24 and 4, it varied (depending on geographic location) between 30 and 120 stadia. The Egyptian equivalent jtrw represents the distance over which a towing team was able to tow a boat. With local variations, the average is assumed to be 10.5 km. The name schoinos is based on an etymological misinterpretation: through sound change, the Egyptian jtrw assimilated with the word for (i.a.) 'reed' ( jrw). Jansen-Winke…

Lepidotonpolis

(84 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Λεπιδότων πόλις; Lepidótōn pólis). Town in upper Egypt, modern Nagʿ el-Mescheich opposite Girga, Egyptian probably Bḥdt-jtt, with remains of a temple of Ramesses II and the rock tomb of a high priest. The chief god was the lioness Mḥjt; but the lepidotus fish was also worshipped here (cf. Hdt. 2,72; Str. 17,812; confirmed by the find of a naos filled with fish bronzes). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography F. Gomaà, s.v. Mescheich, LÄ 4, 107 H. Kees, s.v. L., RE 12, 2066f.

Onuphis

(71 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὄνουφις; Ónouphis). Town in Lower Egypt and the nome named after it (Ὀνουφίτης), first referred to in Hdt. 2,166 as a settlement area of the Calasirieis, later mentioned by ancient geographers (Plin. HN 4,49; Ptol. Geog. 4,5,22 among others) and in a Coptic list of bishops; presumably in the central Delta near modern Maḥallat Minūf. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A.B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, Commentary 99-182, 1988, 193-4.

Tanis

(249 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Τάνις; Tánis). [German version] [1] City in the northeast of the Nile Delta This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt City in the northeast of the Nile Delta, Egyptian Ḏn.t, Biblical Zoan, modern (Tell) San el-Hagar, the largest ruin mound in Egypt (177 ha, 30 m high). T. was founded as a residence in place of the abandoned Pi-Ramesses ( c. 20 km to the south) at the beginning of the 21st Dynasty ( c. 1070 BC). Sculptures and other stone from Pi-Ramesses (some of which had already been re-used there) were used for the construction of T. This older building…

Sabacon

(191 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαβάκων/ Sabákōn). First king of the 25th (Nubian) dynasty, Egyptian Šbk­, brother and successor of Pi(anch)i (Pije). In the traditional chronology, his minimally 15-year reign is estimated at c. 716/5 to 702/1 BC. However, since a recently published Assyrian inscription indicates that his successor Sebichus was already king in 706 [1], S. must have ascended the throne in 720 at the latest. In the 2nd year of his reign, S. conquered Egypt and according to Manetho [1] had his adversary Bokchoris burnt ali…

Nitriae

(114 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νιτρίαι/ Nitríai). Settlement on the western edge of the Nile delta around 15km to the south of Damanhūr, modern Gabal Barng. The area around N. produced natron. Since Ptolemaic times it is documented in Greek sources (e.g. Str. 17,803; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Pall. Laus. 7,1 and others). In the 2nd cent. BC it had a Jewish synagogue. Around AD 315, the Coptic abbot Apa Amoun founded a Christian hermitic community in this region, which flourished in the 4th-5th cents. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Bernand, Le delta égyptien d'après les textes grecs…

Lyconpolis

(260 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (λύκων πόλις; lýkōn pólis, ‘wolfs' town’). City on the western bank of the Nile c. 400 km upstream from Cairo, modern Asyūṭ, Egyptian swtj (‘guard’), Assyrian siāutu, capital city of the 13th district of upper Egypt. Because of its position at a narrow stretch of the river, it formed the border of upper Egypt proper and was therefore (and as the point of departure of a caravan road to the western oases) of particular strategic importance. In the 1st Intermediate Period ( c. 2190-1990 BC) it was the main bulwark against the expansion of the Theban rulers northw…

Xois

(172 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξοίς; Xoís). Egyptian city in the northwestern Nile Delta, Egyptian ( pr-) Ḫsww, chief town of the Sixth District of Lower Egypt. Parts of the ancient settlement are beneath modern Saḫā; no others are extant. There are no archaeological remains from the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC and few textual references; most of the finds are from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. According to a dubious piece of information in Manetho [1] (FGrH 609 F 2,10), the 14th Dynasty ( c. 1650 BC) is supposed to originate from X. During the troubles at the end of the 19th Dynasty ( c. 1200 BC), th…

Bubastis

(119 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt (Egyptian Pr-Bstt, Arabic Tell Basta). Town in the south-eastern delta of the Tanis arm of the Nile. Its primary deity was Bastet, originally a lion goddess, later particularly worshipped as a cat. Her festival is described in Hdt. 2,60. Temple structures are evident from as early as the Old Kingdom, but B. only gained significance with the 22nd dynasty, when it -- alongside Tanis -- became the residence of the Libyan kings. No later than the…

Bokchoris

(92 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] King in Lower Egypt ( c. 720-715 BC), Egyptian Bk-n-rn.f, second and last ruler of the 24th dynasty. He was dethroned by the Nubian king, Shabako, who conquered the whole of Egypt around 715 BC and, according to  Manetho, had B. burned alive. B.'s reign has very little contemporary attestation. All the greater, then, is his fame in later Egyptian and ancient tradition, which regarded him as a sage and a great legislator. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Schneider, Lex. der Pharaonen, 1994, 93f. LÄ 1, 846 RE 3, 66f.

Phiops

(288 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φίοψ/ Phíops or Φιός/ Phiós). Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings (Egyptian Pjpj). [German version] [1] P. I Third king of the 6th Egyptian dynasty Third king of the 6th dynasty ( c. 2300-2250 BC). Under his reign, expeditions to the Sinai [1], to Byblos [1], Nubia and Punt are attested. An inscription of P. was found in Palace G in Ebla. A courtier reported in his funerary inscription that there was a secret investigation of a harem conspiracy led by the queen [1. 98-110]; the same report mentions five military campaigns against Asian nomads. The name of the pyramid (-town) of P. ( Mn-nf…

Kalasiris

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (καλάσιρις; kalásiris). According to Hdt. 2,81, a fringed linen undergarment worn by the Egyptians; according to Democr. (FGrH 267, F.1) also worn by Persians and Ionians, probably to be connected with the Egyptian warrior class of the Kalasirieis. Cf. Calasiris. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Taracus

(244 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάρκος/ Tárkos, Assyrian Tarqû, Egyptian  Th()rq(), in scholarly literature usually Taharka/o). Nubian king, third and most significant ruler (690-664 BC) of the Egyptian 25th Dynasty, throne name Ḫwj-Nfrtm-R. When he was 20 years old, he was summoned by his brother(?) and predecessor Sebichus from Nubia to Egypt, and led the Egyptian army in the (lost) battle of Eltekeh (ANET, 287 f.; 2 Kg 19,9) in 701 BC. In 690 BC, he succeeded Sebichus to the throne, according to his own account as his chosen succe…
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