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(78 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] (δισύπατος; dis(h)ýpatos). Middle-ranking administrator within the Byzantine bureaucracy, first recorded in 804 [1. 153*, 39]. The title of a dishypatus was given to judges and administrators. Of frequent occurrence from the 12th cent. on; after 1178 exclusively as a family name. Makris, Georgios (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Fatouros, Theodori Studitae epistulae, I, 1992. J. Bury, The Imperial Administrative System, 1911, 27 R. Guilland, Recherches sur les Institutions byzantines, II, 1967, 79-81 W. Seibt, Die byz. Bleisiegel in Österreich, I, 197…

Monemvasia Chronicle

(146 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] Brief local chronicle, original version from the 10th cent. AD. Mainly concerned with Patras, it tells of the founding of Monemvasia (southeastern Peloponnese) as a retreat settlement, of the conquest of western and central Peloponnese by the Avars and Slavs, and finally of their subjugation from the east at the beginning of the 9th cent., which introduced a period of rehellenization. The author may be the learned bishop Arethas of Caesarea, who came from Patras. Makris, Georgios (Bochum) Bibliography Edition: I. Dujčev (ed.), Chronaca di Monemvasia, 1976. bibliogra…


(411 words)

Author(s): Camassa, Giorgio (Udine) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones (Βρενδέσιον, Βρεντήσιον; Brendésion, Brentḗsion, modern Brindisi). Important Iapygian-Messapian harbour town (Hdt. 4,99) in agro Sallentino (Liv. per. 19), eastern terminus of the via Appia (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,5). [German version] A. Greek and Roman period Ancient historians assumed a connection between the name of the town and the Messapian βρένδον, ( bréndon, ‘deer’) or βρέντιον ( bréntion, ‘deer's head’), based on…


(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…


(194 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Καυκάσιον ὄρος; Kaukásion óros, Hdt. 3,97; Καύκασον ὄρος; Kaúkason óros, App. praef. 4, App. Mith. 103; καυκάσια ὄρη, Str. 11,2,1; Caucasii/Caucasei montes, Plin. HN 5,98; 6,47; Mela 1,15; 1,19; Geogr. Rav. 2,20). First mentioned at Aesch. PV 422; 719 (πόλισμα καυκάσου, καύκασον); the name has been retained until today. High mountain range (1,100 km long, up to 60 km wide) between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that separated the world of the northern steppe peoples (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alania…


(493 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Χαλκιδική; Chalkidikḗ). The name C., used today for the entire peninsula with its three extended fingers, in antiquity referred only to the area occupied by the Chalcidians on Sithonia and its hinterland, which they probably settled before the great period of Greek colonization (middle of the 8th cent. BC). The coastal towns are first mentioned by name at the time of Xerxes' march, and later, together with inland towns, as members of the Athenian League. In 432 the majority secede…

Acta Sanctorum

(492 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] Title of the collection of the entire Christian hagiographical corpus. 68 volumes ordered according to the calendar (1 Jan. - 10 Nov.), as well as several supplementary volumes, have been published in the Acta Sanctorum (AS) in Antwerp and Brussels since 1643. The term AS for genuine hagiographical sources ( Martyrs and  Saints' lives ) is derived from the title while praise oratory and sermons are included among homiletics. Acts of the Martyrs were initially written beginning in …


(102 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] High ecclesiastical office, one of the five or six deacons responsible for the administration of the patriarchate of Constantinople. As an archivist and librarian, the C. was as a rule highly cultured; he had access to forbidden writings and administrated the library of the patriarchate, which was probably the most important collection of ancient Greek writings during the high Middle Ages. Georgios  Choiroboskos -- besides other 8th-10th cent. incumbents -- rendered outstanding services to the conservation of the cultural heritage of the ancient world. Makris, Ge…

Byzantine Studies

(3,027 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Effenberger, Arne (Berlin)
Makris, Georgios (Bochum) [German version] A. From 1453 to the 18th Cent. (CT) Soon after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman advance stimulated interest among the scholars of Central Europe in Byzantine historians as a source of the history of the Turks. Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) had published historical works by Niketas Choniates and Nikephoros Gregoras with precisely this aspect in mind; he was also the first to recognise the intrinsic value of the Byzantine world, fixing its conventional ra…


(237 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] Followers of a doctrine, taught by the half-legendary priest Bogumil (Greek ‘Theophilus’, ‘loved by God’ [1]), that spread through Bulgaria in the 10th cent. and later swept the whole of the Balkans. They totally rejected ritual and the church hierarchy and sought salvation in humility, continual prayer, abstinence and civil disobedience with respect to property and civil authority. Only gradually do they seem to have acquired dualistic attitudes and myths of creation. Emperor Ale…

Chronica minora

(158 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] The Middle Greek counterparts of the chronica minora of late antiquity offer hardly any possibility of distinguishing between an original breviarium, a summary of a more substantial historical work ( epitomḗ) and a short chronicle (e.g. [1]). No  annals in the strict sense of the word have come down to us from the Greek world. From the late Byzantine and post-Byzantine periods in particular, however, we have sequences of concise, precisely dated entries, the so-called Byzantine short chronicles. They contain i…


(483 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Zenobia | | Hellenistic states | Pompeius | Patricius (Δορύλαιον , Δορύλλειον; Dorýlaion, Dorýlleion). Important city in the north of Phrygia (modern Eskişehir) between the river Tembris (Porsuk Çayı) and its tributary Bathys (called Hermus by Plin. HN 5,119; modern Sarısu). The ancient site is located on a hill (Şarhüyük, ‘Hill of the city’), that was inhabited already in the Hittite and Phrygian period (currently Turkish excavations); founded anew as a Greek city by…


(144 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπαναγωγή; Epanagōgḗ). A law book in 40 titles promulgated under the Macedonian dynasty in the year AD 886 with the goal of invalidating the so-called  Ecloge, a codification of law enacted in the year 741 under the Isaurian emperors. In addition to civil and criminal provisions, it also contains state theoretical parts probably inspired by  Photius, which assume the patriarch to be of equal rank with the emperor. The work, whose original title is ‘Eisagōge’ (Εἰσαγωγή, ‘introduction’) [1. 12-14], instituted the Basilika, a large-scale codification based on the Corp…


(269 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Lippold, A. (0)
[German version] [1] Deacon of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Deacon of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, author of a speculum regum containing 72 acrostically arranged aphorisms for Justinian I (527-565). A. grants the Christian element an influential position in respect of the topic of the pagan ideology of the caesars; the ruler must above all else be a loyal servant and emulator of God. His main source was the paraenetic second speech of Isocrates to Nicocles. This short, naive text had a great influence on the speculum regum literature of the Greek Middle Ages and in the easte…


(234 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀρέθας; Aréthas). Bibliophile commentator on classical MSS, editor of theological-exegetical writings, and polemicist. A. was born shortly after 850 in Patras, became a student of  Photius and was initially active as a scholar in Constantinople. Important MSS of the works of Plato (Bodl. Clark 39, Vatic. gr. 1, Paris. gr. 1807) and Aristotle (Vatic. Urb. 35) were produced by his editorial initiatives or at least copied on his commission. Other MSS were also transliterated from maj…
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