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Funerary architecture

(5,482 words)

Author(s): Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition Funerary architecture (FA) refers to architectonically designed structures built above the contemporary ground level for the purpose of  burial, as opposed to underground hypogea, which have rooms for the cult of the dead and hero cult. Columbaria can combine both types. Hypogea with a ground level cult room influenced the early Christian martyria above the graves. Regarding further aspects of FA, cf.  Hypogaeum;  Maussolleum;  Necropoleis. Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) II. Egypt and the Near East [German version] A. Egypt The Egyptian buria…

Grotta Regina

(63 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A cult cave on the north-eastern slope of Monte Gallo near Palermo ( c. 180 m above sea-level) used since prehistoric times. According to Punic inscriptions and paintings (5th-1st cents. BC, among these Tinnit symbols) on the walls, underworld and fertility gods were worshipped here.  Tinnit Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography G. Coacci Polselli, M. G. Guzzo Amadasi, V. Tusa, Grotta Regina ─ II, 1979.

Melite

(761 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μελίτη; Melítē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, playmate of Persephone's (Hom. H. 2, 419). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nereid Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,42; Hes. Theog. 247; Verg. Aen. 5,825). She is present on Attic vases at the struggle between Peleus and Thetis [1]. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Naiad Naiad ( Nymphs), daughter of the river-god Aegaeus. When Hercules comes to the land of the Phaeacians to atone for the murder of his children, he fathers a son, Hyllus [2], by M. (Apoll. Rhod. 4,537ff.). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [4] Lover of Hercules Dau…

Antas

(88 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Sanctuary of a local god (Babay or Babai?) in south-west Sardinia, called Sid Addir in Punic inscriptions and Sardus Pater in Roman ones. The cult image is a rock memorial in an initially open courtyard, in a temenos. A temple is erected in the 3rd cent. BC and again under Caracalla. Many votive offerings. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Acquaro et al., Ricerche puniche ad Antas, 1996 G. Tore, s. v. A., in: DCPP, 33-34.

Bosa

(55 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Finding-place of two high archaic Phoenician inscriptions (8th cent. BC) at the mouth of the Temo on the western coast of Sardinia. Apparently mentioned in Ptol. 3,3,7 and in It. Ant. 83,8. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. B., 77.

Cult image

(3,473 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika (Heidelberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General comments In the Near East, idols which functioned as cult images (CI) could be found in central temples, peripheral sanctuaries, private houses, and sometimes on open-air sanctuaries and cult alcoves. Their material consistency, appearance, and size varied depending on their origin and the context of their use. Berlejung, Angelika (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Egypt CI of gods already existed in earliest times. They could be anthropomorphic (anthr.), theriomorphous, or of mixed shape, and were created as in…

Monte Sirai

(134 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A settlement which was founded in the 8th cent. BC on an indigenous Nuragic Age site situated on a hilltop at the natural entrance to the ore-rich Iglesiente in the south-west of Sardinia, north-east of the Phoenician settlement of Sulcis; Sardinia). It was taken over by Carthage at the end of the 6th cent. and the partly preserved walls were built in the 4th cent. The civil settlement (five insulae with narrow buildings) initially flourishing after the conquest by Rome was suddenly abandoned around the close of the 2nd century BC. Sardinia Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bib…

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Cirta

(414 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Limes | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Cirta Regia, Punic Krtn). Numidian foundation on the other side of the Ampsaga river [1. 72 n. 141], modern Constantine. C. came under Punic influence no later than the 3rd cent. BC [2; 3]. It was first the chief city of Gaia, then of  Syphax and finally of  Massinissa and his successors (Liv. 29,32,14; 30,12,3-22; Str. 17,3,7; 13; Mela 1,30; App. Lib. 27,111f.; Oros. 4,18,21; Zon. 9,13). After the fall of  Carthage, C. appa…

Castillo Doña Blanca

(102 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Prehistoric Tartessian, fortified proto-urban settlement with a harbour at the ancient junction of the Río Guadalete and the Bahía de Cádiz, now a hill in the alluvial land east of the port of Puerto de S. Maria, since the 8th cent. BC obviously with a large proportion of Phoenician settlers and a cultural strongly Oriental profile to match. From the necropolis ( de las Cumbres) are tomb inventories typically influenced by the Orient. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography D. Ruiz Mata, in: Madrider Mitteil. 27, 1986, 87ff. Id., C. J. Pérez, El poblado fenicio d…

Toreutics

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(τορευτικὴ τέχνη/ toreutikḕ téchnē; Lat. caelatura; literally 'chiseling', from τορεύς/ toreús, Lat. caelum, 'chisel') denotes the chasing and repoussé work of thin plates of metal, or else works in which chasing is combined with repoussé work to design relief work; repoussé work may be replaced by casts. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Toreutics designates primarily the productive technique by which metals (gold/electrum, silver, copper/bronze, lead, iron) were shaped in a cold state. The objects (plaques), usually thin, were forme…

Tamuda

(61 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Small Mauretanian rural town (3rd to 1st cents. BC) at Tétouan (in Morocco) near the coast (of the Mare Ibericum), with strong Carthaginian influences (forms of burial, coin minting). Earliest archaeological evidence from the 6th cent. BC; in the Roman Imperial period the site of a military camp. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography M. Ponsich, s. v. T., DCPP, 436.

Rachgoun

(90 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A small island at the mouth of the Wādī Tafna (Latin Siga) in western Algeria, R. is the site of the extensive necropolis of the Mauretanian Punic city of Siga and, on the southern side, of a small Punic merchant settlement dating to the 7th-5th century BC; according to the finds, there were particularly close links with Phoenician factories on the southern coast of Spain. Syphax Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Lancel, É. Lipiński, s. v. R., DCPP, 369  G. Vuillemot, Reconnaissances aux échelles puniques d'Oranie, 1965.

Stele

(787 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Stelae are standing stone slabs with reliefs or inscriptions on one or more sides; in Egypt wooden stelae also survive. In early Mesopotamia their shape can be natural, elsewhere they usually have rounded tops, less often squared tops. From the end of the 4th millennium BC, funeral stelae were used in Egypt at or in tombs (or cenotaphs) as cult places. In the 1st millennium, funeral stelae (mostly wooden) were also placed in the burial chamber: they bear images (…

Weapons

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Weapons were among the earliest artefacts fashioned by humans and their ancestors. Stone arrowheads and blades were the first recognizable weapons in the ancient Near East into the Neolithic Period ( c. 10000 BC). From the 4th millennium BC, weapons were depicted on roll seals and stelae in scenes of warfare or hunting. Of maces suitable for close combat, generally only the heads (of stone or metal) survive. One exception is the deposit at the Chalcolithic find site of Naḥal Mišmār in P…

Morro de Mezquitilla

(127 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician settlement of the early 8th cent. BC, founded on the site of a Copper Age settlement on a height overlooking the mouth of the Río Algarrobo, 6 km east of Vélez-Málaga (southern Spain). Its associated necropolises were probably partly on the opposite (western) bank of the river, where a 7th-cent. BC chamber tomb, significant from an architectural point of view, is preserved, along with evidence of others (Trayamar). Necropolis Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography H.G. Niemeyer, H. Schubart, Trayamar. Die phönizischen Kammergräber und die N…

Griffin

(260 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Composite creature with the head of a bird of prey and the body of a lion, usually winged, presumed to have been conceived of in the early  Elam period and to have reached predynastic Egypt, where it developed independently. In the 1st quarter of the 2nd millennium the ancient Syrian G. (characterized by a curl on the nape of its neck), which emerged under Egyptian influence, spread to Anatolia and the Aegean; established in Crete since the MM II/III era, it was adapted to the Min…

Trayamar

(234 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Modern country estate ( finca) to the west of the mouth of the River Algarrobo, about 4 km to the east of Torre del Mar (province of Málaga in Spain), site of several Phoenician chamber graves ( tombeaux batîs). The necropolis belongs to the settlement on the Morro de Mezquitilla (on the opposite side of the river). Characteristics of the graves are their construction from hewn blocks, carefully smoothed on the inside, their eastward orientation (towards the settlement) and their access over a ramp-shaped dromos. The chambers of graves 1 ( c. 1.9 m × 2.6 m) and 4 (2.9 …

Nora

(375 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Theatre | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Νώρα; Nṓra). Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia, approx. 20 km south of Cagliari. N. is regarded as the oldest town on the island (Paus. 10,17,5; Solin. 4,1; on its location cf. Itin. Anton. 85,2f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1). After a pre-colonial phase (cf. Phoenician inscriptions CIS I 144 c. 800 BC; [1. 1]), N. was founded by the Phoenicians in the mid 7th cent. BC. The Phoenician …

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to cas…
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