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Caesorix

(27 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celticized Germanic name ending in - rix ‘king’ [1.160]. Cimbrian chieftain ( Cimbri), captured at Vercellae in 101 BC. (Oros. 5,16,21). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Voccio, Voctio

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] King of Noricum with a probably Celtic name [1. 478 f.]. One of V.'s sisters had married Ariovistus in Gaul, in 58 BC she and his other wife died (Caes. B Gall. 1,53,4). Caesar (C.) Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Lugotorix

(38 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Lucotorix). Celtic compound name [1. 98f.]. British prince, who was taken captive in an attack on the Roman ship camp in Kent in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1-2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Sido

(92 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] deposed (according to Tac. Ann. 12,29-30), together with his brother Vangio, their uncle Vannius, who - himself a Quadus - by Roman mandate ruled the kingdom of the Suebi, which neighboured the Quadi. The two brothers then ruled the Suebi state together and remained faithful to Rome. S. fought on the side of the followers of Vespasianus together with Italicus [2] and a contingent of troops on the front line in the battle of Cremona in 68/9 AD (Tac. Hist. 3,5,1; 3,21,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Holder 2, 1540.

Verucloetius

(45 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name ('famous far and wide' [1. 123 f.]). Leader with Nammeius of the Helvetian legation (Helvetii) that requested of Caesar in 58 BC to be allowed to march through the Roman province of Narbonensis (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Dumnacus

(78 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Domnacus). Celtic name; leader of the Andes (Evans, 345). In 51 BC D. besieged Duratius at Lemonum with his army. When he failed to storm the camp of the legate C. Caninius Rebilus, who had hastened to the aid of Duratius, he attempted to flee across the Loire before the advancing forces of C.  Fabius. There he was overtaken, and cut down in the subsequent battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,26-29).  Duratius Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Nehalennia

(264 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic mother goddess, documented by more than 160 inscriptions and pictorial dedications from the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. With two exceptions from Cologne- Deutz these were all found along the Dutch estuary of the Schelde, e.g. in Domburg (Walcheren) and in a submerged temple area discovered as late as 1971/2 on Colijnsplaat (Noord-Beveland) in the Oosterschelde. Today the latter is associated with classical Ganuenta, the assumed principal settlement of the Frisiavones, whose chief …

Chilperic

(248 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Burgundian king, 5th cent. AD C. I, Burgundian king; died c. 480. Co-ruler from 457, after the death of his brother Gundic in c. 472 he replaced the latter as magister militum Galliarum (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,6,2). First having fought against the West Goths, he eventually went over to their side and dissolved the treaty of federation with the Western Roman Empire.  Magister militum Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography J. Richard, s.v. Chilperic I., LMA 2, 1824f. A. Demandt, s.v. Chilperic, RE Suppl. 12, 1588. [German version] [2] Merovingian king, 6th ce…

Epasnactus

(54 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Epad[nactus]; Celt. name compilation from epo- ‘Horse’ [2. 89-90]). Pro-Roman prince of the  Arverni, who captured the rebellious Cadurcan leader Lucterius in 51 BC and turned him over to Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 8,44,3). E. is documented on several coins [1. 432-436]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Colbert de Beaulieu see Diviciacus [1] 2 Evans.

Combutis

(76 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κόμβουτις; Kómboutis). Galatian leader following  Brennus [2] on the 279 BC invasion of Greece [1. 178]. C. and Orestorius were sent off together at the head of a strong contingent through Thessaly into Aetolia. There they committed great atrocities against the inhabitants of the city of Callion and suffered substantial losses on their return to Thermopylae at the hands of the Aetolians who had rushed in pursuit (Paus. 10,22,2-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Chiomara

(144 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Χιομάρα; Chiomára). Celtic name of the wife of the Tolistobogian king  Ortiagon [1. 156]. In 189 BC, after the victory of Cn.  Manlius Vulso over the Galatians at Olympus, C. came into the hands of a centurio. When he first sexually assaulted her and then wanted to set her free in return for a high ransom, she had him killed at the handover. She delivered his head to her husband. Polybius is supposed to have met her personally in Sardis, evidently when she was interned there after the fall of Ortiagon in 183 BC. P…

Orgetorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic composite name: “King of the cudgels” [1. 108f.]). Influential and prosperous Helvetian nobleman, whose greed for royal power, according to Caesar,  led him to instigate a conspiracy by the nobility and in 61 BC to persuade his tribe to move away from its ancestral territory. Appointed leader of this enterprise, O. (according to Caesar) then made plans with Casticus and Dumnorix to conquer the whole of Gaul. In the spring of 60 BC his large number of followers prevented hi…

Boiorix

(157 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic/Illyrian compound for ‘King of the Boii’ [1.497; 2.153]. [German version] [1] Prince of the Boii around 194 in Italy Titular name of a prince of the Boii in Italy who, together with his brothers, led the war against the Romans in 194 BC (Liv. 34,46,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Cimbri around 105 BC King of the  Cimbri, probably identical with the ferox iuvenis who in 105 BC killed the captured legate M.  Aurelius [I 18] Scaurus. Together with his fellow king, Lugius, B. fell at Vercellae, after first negotiating the t…

Galba

(956 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] King of the  Suessiones and commander-in-chief of the coalition of Belgic tribes against Caesar in 57 BC. Following his victory over the Belgae and the capture of  Noviodunum, the main town of the Suessiones, Caesar took two of G.'s son as hostages (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7; 2,13,1; Cass. Dio 39,1,2). ‘Galba’ appears frequently as a cognomen of the Roman gens Sulpicia, but its Celtic origin (Suet. Galba 3,1) is not certain [1. 1621ff.; 2. 349-350]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 Evans. [German version] [2] Rom. emperor AD 68-9 Roman emperor f…

Troucillus

(94 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valerius T. was a respected man from the province of Gaul, who had the confidence of Caesar, who sent him as his interpreter to Diviciacus [2] in 58 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,19,3). Identifying him with C. Valerius Procillus, son of C. Valerius Caburus, the chieftain of the Helvii, and brother of Donnotaurus, is debatable. The latter and M. Mettius [I 1] were sent as Caesar's negotiators to the camp of Ariovistus, but were taken prisoner and freed by Caesar personally (Caes. Gall. 1,47,4; 1,53,5). Helvii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 380-382.

Bituitus

(115 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound form based on bitu- ‘world’ [1.149]. King of the Arverni, defeated in 121 BC by the consul Q.  Fabius Maximus in the region of the Isère's confluence with the Rhône when he came to the aid of the  Allobroges. B. was afterwards banished by the Senate to Alba (Liv. per. 61; Eutr. 4,22; Flor. Epit. 1,37; Oros. 5,14,1 i.a.; Fasti triumphales, CIL I2 634, p. 49 Betulto). His son, Congonnetiacus (Contoniatus), was initially brought to Rome as a hostage but may later have been installed as a client king (Diod. Sic. 34,36). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bib…

Tarcondarius

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταρκονδάριος/ Tarkondários). T. Castor I, tetrarch of the Tectosages, with a Celtic name [1. 1732]. In the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, T. and his father-in-law Deiotarus supported Pompeius [I 3], sending him 300 horsemen (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5). After Caesar's death in 44 BC, he and his wife were killed in his residence of Gorbeus by Deiotarus (Str. 12,5,3). He was the father of T. Castor II (Deiotarus). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 2

Concolitanus

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κογκολιτάνος; Koncholitános). Celtic name, ‘he whose heel is broad’ [1. 182]. Jointly with  Aneroëstes, king of the  Gaesati. He was captured by the Romans after the Celtic defeat at Telamon in 225 BC (Pol. 2,22,2; 2,31). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Tarcondimotus

(191 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Ταρκονδίμοτος/ Tarkondímotos; also Ταρκόνδημος/ Tarkóndēmos). [German version] [1] T. I. Philantonius King of Amanus, son of Straton. Roman ally, partisan of Pompeius [I 3], Caesar, Cassius [I 10] and finally Antonius [I 9], on whose side he fell at Actium in 31 BC (Plut. Antonius 61,2; Cass. Dio. 41,63,1; 47,26,2; 50,14,2; Flor. Epit. 2,13,5; IGR 3, 901 = OGIS 752 and 753). In 51 BC Cicero appraises him as fidelissimus socius trans Taurum amicissimusque populi Romani ("the most faithful ally beyond the Taurus and the best friend of the Roman people", Cic. Fam. 15,…
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