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Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 292 (not identical with …

Leonides

(479 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης; Leōnídēs). Cf. also Leonidas. [German version] [1] General Ptolemy I, c. 300 BC General of Ptolemy I, stratēgós in Cilicia in 310/309 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,19,4). L. probably consecrated a helmet at Delos in 309/308 (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), and in 308 he was appointed by Ptolemy as commander of his Greek possessions. In 307/306, L. fulfilled the function of stratēgós in Sicyon and Corinth; after 301, together with Philocles (?), he commanded Ptolemaic mercenaries in Pamphylia (SEG 17, 639; Aspendus). It is unclear whether he can be identified with Berve, vol. 2, no. 470. Ameling, Walter (…

Phocas

(521 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φωκᾶς; Phōkâs). [German version] [1] Martyr around AD 305 Martyr († around AD 305 in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). He lived in Sinope as a gardener and suffered martyrdom by beheading. As early as the 4th cent. a church is said to have existed above his grave in Sinope. From there his cult spread throughout the entire Mediterranean area. He is depicted as a gardener. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius et al. (eds.), Acta sanctorum, vols. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [German version] [2] P. Diaconus Poet A poet of unknown date who is …

Nossis

(161 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Νοσσίς; Nossís). Female epigrammatist from Locri Epizephyrii; most of her writing took place at the beginning of the 3rd century BC (cf. Anth. Pal. 7,414: epitaphios on Rhinthon; 6,132: praise for the victory of the Locrians over the Bruttians), of noble descent (cf. 6,265). Her poems were found in the ‘garland’ of Meleager [8], who emphasises her inspiration by Eros (4,1,9f.), which N. herself revealed in the programmatic poem 5,170. The 12 poems, each with four lines (6,273 is u…

Laureas

(126 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λαυρέας; Lauréas). Epigrammatist, probably identifiable with Cicero's freedman M. Tullius L., author of five elegant distichs in Latin about a Cymaean mineral spring (FPL 80). The Anthologia Palatina ascribes three poems to him: the funerary epigrams 7,17 (fictitiously to Sappho) and 7,294 (to a fisherman, in the style of Leonidas) which are preceded by the gentilicium Týllios, and the paederastic epigram 12,24, whose authenticity, however, is doubtful (cf. Anth. Pal. 12,25-27 of Statilius Flaccus [1] whose gentilicium Statýllios may have caused attributi…

Gauradas

(68 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Γαυράδας). Author of an ingenious epigram in iambic trimeters in the form of a dialogue between Echo and her lover (Anth. Pal. 16,152). The popular theme (cf. also Archias, Anth. Pal. 9,27; Evodus, ibid. 16,155; Satyrus, ibid. 16,153; Anon., ibid. 16,156) is developed in an original fashion; dating the poet, whose obviously barbarous name is unique, is impossible. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 111f.

Tymnes

(138 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Τύμνης; Týmnēs). Epigrammatist with a Carian name from the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,19), perhaps 3rd or 2nd cent. BC. Seven poems survive, each consisting of two couplets, with the exception of an epideictic six-line poem Anth. Pal. 7,433 on the 'Spartan mother' (imitated by Erycius, Anth. Pal. 7,230 and Antipater [9], Anth. Pal. 7,531). Two of the four epitaphs are considered to be on animals, cf. Anyte (Anth. Pal. 7,199,211). The Priapic poem Anth. Pal. 16,237 i…

Hedylus

(179 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Ἥδυλος; Hḗdylos). Epigrammatist of the Garland of Meleager (Anth. Pal. 4,1,45), son of the female elegiac poet  Hedyle, lived on Samos and under Ptolemy II in Alexandria (283/282-243 BC). Of his poems (dedicatory, funerary, epideictic, sympotic and derisive epigrams) eight are passed down in Athenaeus and five in the Anthologia Palatina (Anth. Pal. 11,123 and 414 are probably not authentic; 5,161 is perhaps from  Asclepiades [1]; cf. Ath. 7,297a; Str. 14,683; EM 72,16 for other possible works in verse and prose). These few epigr…

Pinytus

(72 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Πίνυτος/ Pínytos). Author of a conventional, one-distich funerary epigram on Sappho (Anth. Pal. 7,16; inclusion in the Garland of Philippus [32] highly doubtful). The rarity of the name suggests identification with the grammarian P. of Bithynium, freedman of Epaphroditus and secretary to Nero (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βιθύνιον). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II 1, 438f.; II 2, 464f.  M. Lausberg, Das Einzeldistichon. Studien zum antiken Epigramm, 1982, 261, 265.

Hegemon

(288 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἡγέμων; Hēgémōn). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, poet of Comedies, first professional parodist, 5th cent. BC of Thasos. Poet of the Old Comedy (preserved is a fragment of the Philínna, cf. PCG V 547) and first professional parodist (παρῳδός/ parōidós, Aristot. Poet. 1448a 12f.). Parodizing literature became a literary genre through him, a funny appendix at the rhapsode games, similar to the satyr play at the tragedy agons (cf. [1]). In the only preserved fragment, H., known by the nickname ‘Lentil’ (φακῆ; phakê), recalls with humour the difficult beginnings of his own caree…

Irenaeus Referendarius

(93 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] 6th-cent. AD poet of epigrams, author of three erotic epigrams that originate in the Cycle of Agathias: Anth. Pal. 5,249 (love with the haughty Rhodope is represented as the merging of soul and body); 5,251 (about an unnamed woman whose pride is not even broken by the evanescence of her beauty) and 253 (appeal to the coy Chrysilla to submit to Cypris' wishes). This last poem was imitated by Niketas Eugenianos. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography Al. and Av. Cameron, The ‘Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8.

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Phaennus

(109 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φάεννος; Pháennos). Epigrammatic poet of the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,29f.), probably 3rd cent. BC. Preserved are one funerary epigram for the Spartan Leonidas [1] who fell at Thermopylae (Anth. Pal. 7,437; belongs to the Laconophile school of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry, cf. Epigram I E ), and another for a cricket buried by its owner (7,197); although the subject is a topos (cf. 7,189; 190; 192; 198; 364), this poem seems to depend on Mnasalces (Anth. Pal. 7,194). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I 1, 159; 2, 457f.  G. Herrlinger, T…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Capiton

(87 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καπίτων; Kapítōn). Otherwise unknown epigrammatist, of whom a witty distichon has survived: beauty without grace is compared with a ‘bait without rod’ (Anth. Pal. 5,67,2). C. (Capito) is quite a widespread Roman cognomen: the assumption that he might be identical with the epic poet from Alexandria, mentioned in Ath. 10,425, is thus without foundation; equally, it hardly is likely that he is identical with Pompeius C., who demonstrates his mastery in every metre and rhythm (TrGF 186). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 34.

Calleas

(80 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλέας; Kalléas) of Argos. Otherwise unknown composer of a sympotic epigram (Anth. Pal. 11,232) based on the saying: ‘wine reveals one's character’, a version of the old saying in vino veritas (cf. Alcaeus fr. 333 Voigt; Thgn. 500; Aesch. fr. 393 Radt etc.). The very rare compound λυσσομανής (‘raging’, v. 2) was probably adopted from  Antipater [8] of Sidon (Anth. Pal. 6,219,2). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography V. Longo, L'epigramma scoptico greco, 1967, 106 H. Beckby, Anthologia Graeca, III-IV, 21967.

Mundus Munatius

(86 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Greek epigrammatist whose inclusion in the 'Garland' of Philippus of Thessalonica has not been proved conclusively (for one thing, the combination of the nomen Munatius, [widespread in the Late Republican period], with the cognomen Mundus, [rare in Philip’s time, i.e. first half of 1st cent. AD]), is not verified). Only one formal poem about the ruins of Mycenae is preserved (Anth. Pal. 9,103; cf. e.g. Alpheus[3] of Mytilene, ibid. 9,101 and 104). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II.1, 436-439; 2, 463f.

Konstantinos

(947 words)

Author(s): Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(see also Constantinus). [German version] [1] K. VII Porphyrogennetos Byzantine emperor (Byzantine emperor AD 905-959; sole ruler 945-959). Son of the Byzantine emperor Leon VI (886-912) and of Zoe Karbonopsina; for K. as a politician see Constantinus [9]. His literary activity was directed toward the preservation and codification of knowledge for practical purposes. Thus, the Excerpta [1], a historical and moral encyclopaedia which he inspired, are a gigantic, thematically structured compilation in 53 volumes. It consists of sections from several h…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…
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