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Myron

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρων; Mýrōn). [German version] [1] Name of several persons from Sicyon Several persons from Sicyon named M. are mentioned in literature: a) Hdt. 6,126,1: Sicyonian nobleman (7th century BC), son of Andreas, father of Aristonymus, grandfather of the ‘tyrant’ Cleisthenes [1]. b) Paus. 6,19,1f.: the ‘tyrant’ M., victor in the chariot race at Olympia (648 BC), founder of the Sicyonian treasure house (thesauros) at Olympia. c) Nicolas of Damascus, FGrH 90 F 61: one of the three tyrant brothers descended from Orthagoras (evil M., good Isodemus, cunning Cleisthenes) from the ‘ Orthagorides…

Athanis

(143 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄθανις; Áthanis). A. from Syracuse, name form Áthanis in Ath. 3,98d and Plut. Timol. 23,6; Athánas in Diod. Sic. 15,94,4; Áthenis in Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 194. He took part in the expedition of  Dion to Sicily and was together with  Heraclides and Archelaus of Dyme prostátēs tês póleōs (‘Director of the City’) in Syracuse in 356. A. continued the work of  Philistus (FGrH 556), which reached as far as 363/2, and described in 13 books the further destinies of the younger  Dionysius, the events around Dion as well as the history of Timoleo…

Meton

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Μέτων; Métōn). [German version] [1] Son of Empedokles, who won a victory at Olympia in 496BC Meton came from Acragas, he was the son of one Empedocles who won a victory at Olympia in 496BC, and father of the famous philosopher Empedocles [1]. After the overthrow of the tyrant Thrasydaeus in 472/1 Meton was a highly regarded figure in Akragas (Diog. Laert. 8,51-53; 8,72 = Diels/Kranz 31 A 1; Suda s.v. Empedokles = Diels/Kranz 31 A 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] From Athens, Astronomer und Geometrist end of. 4th cent.BC Astronomer and geometrist from Athens, son of Pau…

Telines

(78 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηλίνης; Tēlínēs) from Gela, hierophant ( Mystḗria D.) of the chthonic deities, who shortly after the founding of the city in 688 BC led the Gelans, who had been defeated in a civil war and had fled to Mactorium, back to Gela under the protection of the cult apparatus of these deities. This happened under the condition that his descendants, which included Gelon [1], should retain this priestly status (Hdt. 7,153). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Demon

(247 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμων; Dḗmōn). [German version] [1] Uncle of Demosthenes Uncle of  Demosthenes, honoured for the way in which he conducted his office as priest in 386/5 BC (IG II2 1140); possibly trierarch in 373/2 (IG II2 1607, 26; again later IG II2 1609,13; [1. 115] see Demosthenes 3597 II). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Nephew of Demosthenes, Athenian priest Son of Demomeles of the Paeania deme, nephew of  Demosthenes, priest of the urban Asclepius cult (IG II2 4969), probably identical with the rhetor whose extradition was demanded by  Alexander [4] the Great i…

Hieronymus

(2,779 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Et al.
(Ἱερώνυμος; Hierṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander of the Persian fleet 395 BC, politician Athenian, one of  Conon's representatives in his command over the Persian fleet in 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4), campaigned for more expansive politics in Athens (Aristoph. Eccl. 201; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 73). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 533930. [German version] [2] Statesman in Megalopolis around 350 BC Oecist from Mainalus in Arcadia at the founding of Megalopolis ( Megale Polis) in 370 BC (Paus. 8,27,2), was one of the leading s…

Hipparinus

(189 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππαρῖνος; Hipparînos). [German version] [1] Syracusan, father of Dion, commander 406/5 BC Syracusan, father of  Dion [I 1], elected commander in 406/5 BC, together with  Dionysius [1] l. (Plut. Dion 3). Supported the coup of Dionysius and gave him his daughter Aristomache to wed (Aristot. Pol. 5,5,6). Praised by Plato (Ep. 8, 353b). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 1, 222f.; 2, 638f. [German version] [2] Syracusan, son of Dionysius, grandson of H. [1] Syracusan, son of Dionysius [1] and Aristomache, grandson of H. [1]. …

Anaxilaus

(309 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀναξίλαος; Anaxílaos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Rhegium (494-476 BC) Of Rhegium. Belonged to a family which emigrated from Messene to  Rhegium after the second Messenian War at the end of the 7th cent. BC. In 494 BC A. deposed the oligarchy of the 1,000 richest citizens in Rhegium (Aristot. fr. 611,55; Pol. 6,1316 a 38) and established there a personal rulership. A short while later he convinced the Samians and Milesians, who during their flight from the Persians were invited by the Zanclaeans to s…

Historiography

(6,587 words)

Author(s): Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Introduction Judged by the principles of modern historiography, this discipline did not exist in the Ancient Orient. Nevertheless, the past has been treated in the literature in various ways, which indicates that history was an essential source of political and religious identity in the Ancient Orient. Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Mesopotamia Records with a historical orientation do not emerge until the middle of the 3rd millennium BC in the form of royal inscriptions of Lagaš. Deeds are reported f…

Myrsilus

(356 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρσιλος; Mýrsilos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Mytilene, c. end of the 7th cent. BC Pilloried as the ‘tyrant of Mytilene in the fragments of the lyric poet Alcaeus [4] (oldest documentary evidence for the word monarchía ), M. is therefore ranked by Strabo alongside Melanchrus and Pittacus (Str. 13,2,3). His name points to Lydia (Hdt. 1,7 and he was possibly part of the Cleanactid family (schol. to Alcaeus 112,23 Lobel-Page = Voigt). After Melanchrus' overthrow he became a tyrant and survived a conspiracy…

Timoleon

(867 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τιμολέων/ Timoléōn). General and ruler in Sicily, originally from Corinth, son of Timodemus and Demariste. In 365 BC, T. approved of the assassination of his brother Timophanes, the tyrant of Corinth (Plut. T. 2 f.; Nep. T. 1; Diod. Sic. 16,65,2-9), retiring after that from the public life for almost 20 years. At the request of the Syracusans, who were threatened by Dionysius [2] II and Carthage, he was sent by the Corinthians as a general in 345, landing with 10 ships and 700 mer…

Diyllus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίυλλος; Díyllos) of Athens. Greek historian of the first half of the 3rd cent. BC, son of the atthidographer Phanodemus. Author of Historíai in 27 bks., a universal history in two parts (cf. FGrH 73 T 1 and 2), which continued  Ephorus and covered the period from the 3rd Sacred War (357/6) to the death of Cassander's son Philip. D. was continued in his turn by Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78 T 1). According to Plutarch, D., who wrote entirely in the ‘tragic’ manner (Plut. Mor. 345E and F), was ‘not insignificant in historiography’ (Plut. Mor. 862B = T4). …

Cratippus

(339 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Κράτιππος; Krátippos). [German version] [1] Of Athens, contemporary of Thucydides, continued Th.'s work of Athens. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De Thucydide 16), he was roughly a contemporary of  Thucydides and also the one who continued his work. The table of contents from his historical work which spanned at least to 394 BC is recorded in Plutarch (mor. 345c-e). Some researchers (e.g. [1; 2; 4; 5; 6]) claim that C. was a significant historian of the 4th cent. BC and the author of the   Hellēnikà Oxyrhýnchia , others (e.g. Ed. Schwarz, Ed. Meyer…

Atthis

(489 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτθίς; Atthís). Atthís, plural Atthídes, refers to Athenian local histories; Atthidographers are the authors of these works. The Atthides were antiquarian rather than historically oriented; in an annalistic and chronicle-like representation they provided information about myths, religion, history, culture and literature, as well as the topography of Athens and Attica. In general they treated the entire span of time of their respective authors from the mythic beginnings up to the present. The Atthidographers often functioned as Exegetaí, interpreters of r…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Themistus

(98 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θέμιστος; Thémistos). Syracusan, married to Harmonia, the daughter of Gelon [2] II and granddaughter of Hieron [2] II (Liv. 24,24,2 and 6; 25,7 and 10). He was presumably a member of the regency council established by Hieron for his underage grandson Hieronymus [3] and after Hieronymus was killed took part in a coup planned by Adranodorus  (Liv. 24,24,2; 24,25). At the command of the strategoi, who had been informed of the plot, however, he was executed - as was Adranodorus - in 214 BC (Liv. 24,24,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Hieron II., 1959, 86…

Hippys

(246 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἵππυς; Híppys) of Rhegium. Since [1], a much discussed and controversial author: According to the Suda s.v. = T 1, the oldest West Greek historian, alive during the Persian Wars of 480/479 BC. He wrote the following works: Sikeliká in 5 bks., Ktísis Italías (‘Founding History of Italy’), Chroniká in 5 bks., Argoliká in 3 bks. Later, a certain Myes is claimed to have epitomized the work. Due to the fact that the fragments are mostly mysterious (e.g. F 1-3 with the comm. of Jacoby) and that later authors such as Dionysius from Hali…

Hermeias [1-2]

(260 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Laks, André
(Ἑρμείας; Hermeías) see also Hermias (Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Of Methymna, author of Sikelika, dated 4th cent. BC of Methymna. Probably 4th cent. BC. First ‘foreign’ author of Sikeliká, comprising 10 or 12 bks and covering the period up to 376/5 (Diod. Sic. 15,37,3). As only a single fragment is extant, he hardly seems to have influenced the subsequent tradition. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Fr.: FGrH 558. Bibliography: K. Meister, Die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1990, 69. [German version] [2] Of Curium, iambic poet, Hellenistic period of Curium, iambi…

Hyperochus

(51 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὑπέροχος; Hypérochos) from the Lower Italian Cyme, period unknown (according to Jacoby, commentary on H., FGrH 576) 3rd cent. BC at the earliest, 2nd cent. AD at the latest). Author of a local history of Cyme ( Kymaiká), of which only 3 fragments are extant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Hypsicrates

(86 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὑψικράτης; Hypsikrátēs) of Amisus. Historian and grammarian who lived to be 92 years old ([Lucian] Macrob. 22). The few fragments of his historical work point to the period of Caesar or Augustus (end of the 1st cent. BC). He also wrote about Homer, whom he viewed as a contemporary of Hesiod, and gave etymologies of Greek and Latin words that Varro rejected. In so doing, he derived Latin vocabulary from the Greek. FGrH 190. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography R. Giomini, Ipsicrate, in: Maia 8, 1956, 49-55.
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