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Apollinarius

(377 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Forms of the name The following are attested: Apollinaris or Ἀπολινάριος ( Apolinários) or Ἀπολεινάριος ( Apoleinários), but not  Ἀπολλινάριος ( Apollinários). Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Zahn, Apollinaris, Apollinarius, Apolinarius, in: id., Paralipomena, Forsch. zur Gesch. des nt. Kanons 5/1, 1893, 99-109. [German version] [2] of Laodicea Priest and teacher of grammar Priest and teacher of grammar. According to Sozom. Hist. eccl. (2,46; 3,15-16; 5,18; 6,25) the father of  A. [3]. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Dräseke…

Book of Letters

(107 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Armenian collection of important theological letters, documenting the history of the Armenian church and its relations with neighbouring churches (Syria, Georgia, Byzantium), such as the separation of the Georgian church from the Armenian in c. 600. The Book of Letters is divided into three chronological phases: 5th-7th, 8th-11th and 11th-13th cents.  Byzantium;  Georgia;  Syria Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Girk T̀`ġtoc`, 1901 E. Ter-Minassiantz, Die armen. Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syr. Kirchen. Bis zum Ende des 13.Jh.…

Petrus

(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…

Gregorius

(2,969 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Γρηγόριος; Grēgórios) [German version] [I 1] Thaumaturgus Lawyer and theologian, 3rd cent. AD G. was born between AD 210 and 213, as the son of a wealthy pagan family in Neocaesarea/ Pontus (modern Niksar), probably under the name of Theodorus. In 232/3 (or 239), after a thorough elementary education G. actually wanted to study law in  Berytus/Beirut but before this in  Caesarea [2] (Palestine) got to know  Origen who taught there and then studied under his supervision the ‘Christian s…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Sinai

(194 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Σινᾶ/ Sinâ, Σινά/ Siná, Σεινά/ Seiná, later also Σιναΐ/ Sinaḯ, Latin Sina; Hebrew sīnay). Mountain in the wilderness of the same name, where the Covenant between Yahweh and Israel was made. S. is primarily attested in the Old Testament; in the New Testament Σινᾶ occurs only in Acts 7,30 and 38 and Gal 4,2; the etymology is debatable. Presumably S. is derived from the Hebrew root sny, 'shine' [1. 52033]. S. often occurs with the later additions 'Mount', 'Desert'. Euseb. On. 172,9 f. distinguished S. from Mount Horeb (Χωρήβ/ Chōrḗb), for Jerome (ibid. 173,15 f.) the …

Eznik of Kolp

(246 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Kołp). Pupil of  Mesrop. His student colleague Koriwn gives some details about E.'s biography in the Vita of Mesrop. According to him, in around AD 406 E. goes to  Edessa [2] (= Urfa) on behalf of his teacher and Katholikos  Sahak in order to learn Syriac and to translate works by the Syrian church fathers into Armenian. Together with Koriwn he brought around 435 Greek biblical manuscripts, manuscripts by the church fathers, and the Acts of the Synods of  Nicaea and  Ephesus from…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Nicolaus

(2,154 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | CH.KÄ. | Et al.
(Νικόλαος/ Nikólaos). [German version] [1] Strategos of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria, 219 BC Aetolian, stratēgós of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria. In 219 BC, he unsuccessfully besieged the dissident Theodotus in Ptolemais,  but succeeded in preventing the encirclement of Dora by Antiochus [5] III. Made supreme commander in 218, he occupied the coastal pass north of Sidon, but was repelled by Antiochus at the Damuras river. N. then probably defected to Antiochus, whom he accompanied in 209 to Hyr…

Potamiaena

(117 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ποταμιαίνα/ Potamiaína). Martyr (died c. AD 360; feast 7 or 28 June). Pupil of Origenes [1] in Alexandria. According to an account by Eusebius [7] (Eus. HE 6,4) she suffered martyrdom under Septimius Severus (193-211). She converted the soldier Basileides who escorted her to her execution. Together with her mother Marcella she was executed by having hot pitch poured over her. After three days she is supposed to have appeared to Basileides, who was arrested for his conversion and then also martyred. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henscheniu…

Mesrop

(287 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Known as Maštoc in the older MSS and in the vita written by his student Koriwn. His date of birth ( c. AD 360/364) and his descent from the influential family of the Mamikonians are uncertain. Born in Katzikk in the Armenian province of Tarawn, M. received a Hellenic education. After military service under the Armenian king - either Chosrov III ( Chosroes [4]) or his lieutenant Arawan - in Vagharshapat, he became a secretary at the Armenian royal court between 385 and 389. Between 390 and 395, the Armenian Patriarch Sahak [Isaac] the Great ( c. 457-438) made him a monk. Af…

Iberians

(89 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἴβηροι/ Íbēroi, Ἴβηρες/ Íbēres). I. and Iberia (Ἰβηρία/ Ibēría), as terms for the inhabitants and country of East Georgia, occur only in Graeco-Roman and Byzantine sources; possibly etymologically related to virkʿ (Armenian) or Sáspeires (Σάσπειρες, Hdt. 4,37; 40) [1. 146]. Iberia was bordered in the north by  Sarmatia, in the west by  Colchis, in the south by Greater Armenia ( Armenia) and in the east by  Albania [1] (Ptol. 5,10,1f.). Armenia;  Georgia, Georgians;  Georgian Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography 1 O. Lordkipanidse, Archäologie in Geor…

Kontakion

(198 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον; kontákion, kondákion; from κοντός, ‘parchment roll’). Name given in later times to a genre of Byzantine hymns documented first in the 6th cent. AD. The kontakion consists of 18 to 24 metrically equal stanzas (so-called oíkoi, οἶκοι), preceded by the metrically differing prooemium ( koukoúlion, κουκούλιον). The individual stanzas are connected by acrostichs ( Acrostich) and have a common refrain (the ephýmnion or akroteleútion, ἐφύμνιον, ἀκροτελεύτιον). Kontakia are related to the Syrian madraša ( Ephrem Syrus), …

Elishē

(118 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ełišē). Author of a history of the Vardanids and the Armenian wars in the Armenian language, describing the uprising of the Armenian people under the leadership of Vardan Mamikonyan against the Sassanid occupation forces in AD 450/1. However, E. did not himself witness the historical events which he describes, but is likely to have lived in the 6th cent. AD. It was his aim to provide a martyrological anchor for the foundation of the Armenian church.  Armenia;  Armenians, Armenian literature;  Sassanids Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography E. Ter-Minassjan, Va…

Troparion

(139 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (τροπάριον/ tropárion, from τρόπος/ trópos in the sense of 'mode, note'). Originally a short strophe in free-rhythm Byzantine prose with the character of a prayer and a melody resembling psalmody. The troparion was present at the beginning of  Byzantine hymnography (Hymnos IV.) and was initially sung in antiphony to every verse of a psalm. From the 5th cent. it was expanded and integrated into the ending of psalms (between the 3-6 last verses). It also found entry into the kontákion and the kanṓn [2]. For the most part transmitted anonymously, the troparion experienced…

Andreas

(442 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἀνδρέας; Andréas). [German version] [1] Personal physician of Ptolemaeus Philopator Originally from Carystus. Personal physician of Ptolemaeus Philopator, was murdered before the battle of Raphia in the year 215 BC (Pol. 5,81). The son of Chrysareus, he was a Herophilean ( Herophilus), who wrote about medicaments (this was especially so in his writing Narthex), midwifery, poisons, doxography and the history of medicine. He commented on Hippocrates, even if he did not write any actual commentaries. Eratosthenes (EM s. v. Bibliaegisthus) accused h…

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Biblical poetry

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT)
[German version] I. Greek Biblical poetry (BP) started with the early church poetry of hymns and psalms that were part of devotional service. Extensive biblical quotations or poetic paraphrases mark the origin of BP. Then as later, it is impossible to separate literary from liturgical poetry. Thus the heirmós (εἱρμός) Χριστὸς γεννᾶται, for example, is taken from the beginning of a  homily of  Gregorius of Nyssa (PG 36, 312ff.). The  kontakion, developed in Constantinople around 500, marks the high point of BP. One of the leading figures for t…
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