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Eumenes

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐμένης; Euménēs). [German version] [1] Chancellor of Philippos II and Alexander the Gr. * 362/1, Son of Hieronymus of Cardia, from 342 onwards chancellor for the Macedonian king Philip II and then for Alexander III, for whom he kept the ephemerides (Nep. Eumenes 1,4-6; Plut. Eumenes 1,4; Arr. Anab. 7,4,6; Ath. 10,434b). In 326, E. was strategos on a military mission in north-western India and then he was the trierarch of the Indus fleet (Arr. Anab. 5,24,6, Ind. 18,7; Curt. 9,1,19). At the mass wedding in Susa in 324, E. was probably the only Greek…

Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…

Lenaeus

(332 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [2] L. Pompeius Satyrist and freedman of Pompey Magnus Suet. Gram. 15 reports, aside from several romantic and improbable occurrences from the life of the young L., that he was a freedman of Pompeius Magnus, accompanied him on almost all his campaigns and after his death and the death of his sons (the last one died in 35 BC) earned his living as a school teacher in Rome. He remained so faithful to Pompey that he reacted to criticism of him in Sallustius' Historiae with an acerbissima satura, an extremely stinging satire, calling Sallust a monster both in his life an…

Hegelochus

(247 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος; Hēgélochos). [German version] [1] Fleet officer under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC Son of Hippostratus, officer under  Alexander [4]. Initially commander of the vanguard cavalry, he was commissioned to form a Macedonian fleet from ships collected from Greek cities in the summer of 333 BC (Arr. Anab. 2,2,3; inexact Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoterus was his subordinate, not his colleague). After the death of  Memnon his fleet dominated the Hellespont, where he i.a. stopped an Athenian grain fleet (Ps.-…

Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Klerouchoi

(1,718 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι; klēroûchoi, proprietors of a klêros , of a ‘land allotment’). I. Athens [German version] A. 5th cent. BC Apart from its metaphorical meaning in Sophocles (Soph. Aj. 508: ‘having a certain fate’) first mentioned in literature by Herodotus (5,77,2) as a designation of 400 Athenians, who received fields in Chalcis [1] after the Athenian victory over the Chalcidians in 506/505 BC. The number is probably exaggerated, and cannot be corrected from Aelianus (Var. 6,1), who reports that 2,000 Athenians were settled on lands of the Chalcidian hippobótai . These kleroûchoi had to re…

Harmachis

(225 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Egyptian Ḥrw-m-ḫ.t, ‘Horus in the horizon’). [German version] [1] Name of the great Sphinx Name under which the great  Sphinx of  Gizeh was venerated as the embodiment of the sun god since the beginning of the New Kingdom ( c. 1500 BC). Many votive steles document the popularity of the cult amongst private people as well as kings. Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J. Assmann, s.v. H., LÄ2, 992-996. [German version] [2] Priest of Ptah of Memphis, about 200 BC Son of Anemhor, father of Nesysti III; high priest of Ptah of Memphis ( c. 260 ─ after 194-193 BC); sometimes i…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Leontiscus

(136 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λεοντίσκος; Leontískos). [German version] [1] Olympic winner from Messana of Messana (Sicily). Two times Olympic winner in wrestling (456, 452 BC) [1]. He won his fights (in a similar manner to the pancratiast Sostratus) by breaking fingers (Paus. 6,4,3). His victor's statue in Olympia is by Pythagoras of Rhegium [2]. Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) Bibliography 1 L. Moretti, Olympionikai, 1957, no. 271, 285 2 H.-V. Herrmann, Die Siegerstatuen von Olympia, in: Nikephoros 1, 1988, 154, no. 40. [German version] [2] Son of Ptolemy I, late 4th cent. BC Son of Ptolemy I and Thais, brother …

Antigone

(839 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀντιγόνη; Antigónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thessalian  Phere Daughter of Thessalian  Phere and mother of the Argonaut Asterion (Hyg. Fab. 14,1). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia, wife of  Peleus, by whom she has a daughter Polydora (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 61a). Peleus accidentally kills Eurytion and therefore flees to Acastus at Iolcus, who exculpates him. Acastus' wife Astydameia tries in vain to win him for herself and then in reve…

Philammon

(224 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλάμμων; Philámmōn). [German version] [1] Singer and lyrist Mythical singer and lyrist of Delphi, a son of Apollo (Pherecydes of Athens FGrH 3 F 120); his mother is variously given as Philonis (ibid.), Chione [2] (Ov. Met. 11,316f.) and Leuconoe [1] (Hyg. Fab. 161). His sons - for whom there are also other genealogical backgrounds - were Thamyris (Eur. Rhes. 916; 925) and Eumolpus (Theoc. 24,108). At Delphi, P. is said to have introduced choirs of virgins (Pherecydes loc. cit.) and choirs within the t…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Agathoclea

(178 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ἀγαθόκλεια; Agathókleia). [German version] [1] Mistress of Ptolemy II Mistress of Ptolemy II; her historicity is uncertain. PP 6, 14713; [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Mistress of Ptolemy IV Daughter of Agathocles [5] and  Oenanthe, sister of  Agathocles [6]. Mentioned 215 BC in possession of several Nile boats, 213/12 kanephore. Mistress of Ptolemy IV; in 204 took part in the murder of  Arsinoe [II 4] III, entrusted with her mother with the young Ptolemy V (as nursemaid?). Murdered by a mob in 203 at the deposition of her brother. PP 3/9, 4984; 6, 14714; [2]. Ameling, W…

Arabarches

(420 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀραβάρχης; Arabárchēs) [German version] [1] Office in roman Egypt Office in Roman Egypt, attested as from 2nd cent. AD (OGIS 202), but it may have had Ptolemaic models. A college of arabarchai was responsible for levying the import tax in Coptus in the mid 2nd cent. (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). The distribution of tasks is unclear with the παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης ( paralḗmptēs tês Erýthras thalássēs), however, OGIS 202 indicates the offices were operating in parallel. The arabarches was also responsible for collecting the road taxes on the road from Coptus to …

Stolus

(232 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] [1] From Cyrene, c. 100 BC (Στόλος; Stólos). Son of Theon, probably from Cyrene, later honoured with Athenian citizenship; archedéatros in Cyrene in 108 BC, later admiral of Ptolemaeus [15] IX on Cyprus between 107 and 104. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, S. the Admiral, in: Phoenix 26, 1972, 358-368  H. Hauben, Was S. a Cyrenaean?, in: ZPE 25, 1977, 221-226  J. Pouilloux, Salaminiens de Chypre à Delos, in: BCH Suppl. 1, 1973, 406-411. [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στῶλος; Stōlos). Inland cit…

Polemaeus

(352 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος/ Polemaîos). [German version] [1] Macedonian commander, c. 300 BC (also called Ptolemaeus and Polemon in MSS, but correctly P ., IG II2 469 and IK 28,2). Son of one P., Macedonian, nephew of Antigonus [1]. P. was probably already an officer in the Macedonian army under Alexander [4] the Great, possibly sōmatophýlax (Court titles B) of Philippus Arridaeus [4] (Arr. Succ. 1,38). In 319, he went to Eumenes [1] as a hostage of Antigonus (Plut. Eumenes 10); in 314 he was sent as general to Cappadocia and to secure the Hellespont (Diod. Sic.…

Cronius

(349 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος; Krónios). [German version] [1] Platonist Platonist (Syranus, In Aristot. Metaph. 109,11) of the Pythagorizing tendency, mostly called a Pythagorean, (perhaps older) contemporary and friend (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) of  Numenius, about the mid 2nd cent. AD. As a rule C. is only mentioned with him but frequently before him and generally shares his opinion. C. was read in the school of Plotin (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 14); he composed hypomnemata (ibid., probably no commentaries on whole w…

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Hieron

(898 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἱέρων; Hiérōn). [German version] [1] H. I. Tyrant of Syracuse around 500 BC from Gela,  Deinomenid, brother of Gelon [1], born c. 540/530 BC. Married first a daughter of Nicocles of Syracuse (before 485), then of Anaxilaus of Rhegium ( c. 480) and finally of Xenocrates, a brother of Theron of Acragas ( c. 475). He was many times a victor in horse and chariot races in Delphi (482, 478, 470) and Olympia (476, 472, 468) [1. 208ff.]. Entrusted with the rulership of Gela by Gelon in 485, he succeeded the latter in 478 as tyrant of Syracuse. H. operat…
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