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Benedict XIV, Pope

(397 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] Jul 17, 1740 – May 3, 1758 (Prospero Lambertini, born Mar 31, 1675, Bologna). From an old noble family, he rose rapidly in the curial administration after theological and legal studies in Rome (1694: Dr. theol. et iur.), became titular bishop of Theodosia in 1725, cardinal in petto in 1726 (made public in 1728), archbishop of Ancona in 1727, and archbishop of Bologna in 1731. Elected pope as a compromise candidate after a conclave which lasted more than …

Faulhaber, Michael

(210 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Mar 5, 1869, Klosterheidenfeld – Jun 12, 1952, Munich). Faulhaber was ordained priest in 1892, attained the Dr.theol. in 1895, became professor of Old Testament in Strasbourg in 1903, bishop of Speyer in 1911, also deputy field provost of the Bavarian Army in 1914, archbishop of Munich (I) and Freising in 1917, and finally cardinal in 1921. He was widely known as a brilliant speaker and powerful preacher. A resolute monarchist, he kept his distance from the Weimar Republic. Despi…

Wittig, Joseph

(205 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Jan 22, 1879, County of Glatz [Kladsko] – Aug 22, 1949, Göhrde), theologian and popular religious writer. He received his Dr.theol. from the University of Breslau in 1902 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1903; in 1915 he was appointed pro-¶ fessor of Early Church history at Breslau. His Easter article “Die Erlösten” [The Redeemed] published in Hochland in 1922 used the form of an autobiographical narrative to criticize his church’s contemporary penitential system (doctrine of justification); as a result, his works were placed on the Index and he was excommunic…

Kolping, Adolf

(517 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1813, Kerpen near Cologne – Dec 4, 1865, Cologne) was the son of a small farmer and originally a journeyman cobbler who, in part ¶ through private study, achieved his Abitur (high-school diploma) in 1841. He studied theology in Munich and Bonn, was ordained priest in Cologne in 1845, and became chaplain in Elberfeld. When, as the president of the Gesellenverein, “journeyman union,” founded there in 1846 by the teacher Johann Gregor Breuer, Kolping was again confronted with the needs of the journeyman class and the industrial proletar…

Pantaleon (Saint)

(230 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] According to the Greek Passio (5th/6th cent.), Pantaleon was the son of a pagan father and Christian mother in Nicomedia and a student of the emperor’s personal physician Euphrosynos. After his conversion he healed a blind man in the name of Christ. Envious members of the college of physicians denounced him; even his successful healing of a paralytic in a contest with his informers before the emperor Maximian could not save him from martyrdom. The lions in the arena refused to attack …

Vicari, Hermann von

(348 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (May 13, 1773, Aulendorf – Apr 14, 1868, Freiburg im Breisgau), archbishop of Freiburg (1843–1868). In 1798 he obtained a canonry at the collegiate church of St. John in Constance. He studied in Augsburg, Vienna, and Dillingen, where he received his Dr.iur.utr. in 1797. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1797 but never served a parish; instead he was active in church administration from the outset, initially as a colleague of I.H. v. Wessenberg in Constance, after 1827 as canon …

Mindszenty, József

(430 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (orig. Pehm; Mar 29, 1892, Csehimindszent, Vas district, Hungary – May 6, 1975, Vienna), last prince-primate of Hungary. After seminary studies in Szombathely, he was ordained priest in 1915 and was appointed pastor of Zalaegerszeg in 1919. In 1944 he was made bishop of Veszprém and in 1945 archbishop of Esztergom and prince-primate. In 1946 he was made cardinal. His career as a writer and political activist began early. In 1919 he was arrested as an enemy of the revolutionary gov…


(1,681 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred | Smolka, Wolfgang J.
[German Version] I. City and Archbishopric – II. University I. City and Archbishopric Munich is the capital of Bavaria (in 1999, approx. 1.38 million inhabitants, 45.5% Catholic, 16.4% Protestant), with two universities (see II below), seat of the archbishop of Munich and Freising (cardinal) and of the Protestant regional bishop of Bavaria. The first documented reference to Munich appeared in 1158, in connection with the dispute between Bishop Otto of Freising and Duke Henry the Lion about market, bridge t…


(1,376 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred | Germann, Michael | Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] I. General Church History – II. Europe – III. Latin America I. General Church History Laicism (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”; Laity) originated in 19th-century France ( laïcisme) as an aggressively anticlerical concept; originally it proposed absolute separation of the state, secular culture, and the church (esp. the Catholic Church; Church and state), opposing all public influence on the part of the church. Its intellectual roots were in the Enlightenment and especially the French Revolution – although it r…

Primacy, Papal

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition The expression papal primacy denotes the juridical supremacy in the universal church of the pope as bishop of Rome, i.e. his supreme and immediate administrative authority as head of the College of Bishops, pastor of the universal church, and vicar of Christ on earth ( CIC/1983, c. 331: “The Bishop of the Church of Rome . . . is the head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the Pastor of the universal Church here on earth; consequently, by virtue of his office, he has supreme, full, immediate, and…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…
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