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Amyraut, Moïse

(212 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Sep 1596, Bourgueil, Touraine – Jan 8, 1664, Saumur) studied law at Poitiers and theology at Saumur (1618–1621). In 1626, after a brief stay in London and an initial pastorate at St. Aignan, he became pastor and in 1633 professor at Saumur. His doctrine of hypothetical universalism ( Traité de la prédestination

Jacquelot (Jaquelot), Isaac

(207 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1647, Vassy – Oct 20, 1708, Berlin). Jacquelot succeeded his father as Protestant minister in Vassy; after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (France: III, 1; Huguenots), he took refuge in Heidelberg. In 1686 he became pastor of the French congregation in The Hague. His Avis sur le tableau du socinianisme (1690) brought him into conflict with P. Jurieu, so that he withdrew to Basel. In 1702 he was called to Berlin by Frederick I; he served as court chaplain there until his death. In his writings, he argued with suc…

Huet (Huetius), Pierre Daniel

(233 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1620, Caen – Jan 26, 1721, Paris). Huet was the early orphaned son of a Calvinist who converted to Catholicism. After attending the Jesuit College he studied law in Caen. He shared an interest …

Rivet, André

(184 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Andreas Rivetus; Jun 22, 1572, St. Maixent – Jan 1, 1651, Breda). After studying at the Reformed Academy in Orthez under L. Daneau and others, and in 1595 in La Rochelle, Rivet became chaplain to the de la Trémouille duc…

Bartholomew's Day, Massacre of

(276 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1572) refers to the massacre of the Huguenots in the night before Bartholomew's Day during the wedding festivities of the Protestant Henri de Navarre with the Catholic Marguerite de Valois (Parisian Blood Wedding). It was triggered by the attempted assassination of the leader of the Huguenots and admiral, G. de Coligny. The bloody terror in Paris …

Port-Royal Abbey

(345 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] Port-Royal Abbey, south of Versailles near Chevreuse, was founded in 1204 as an abbey for Cistercian nuns (Cistercians). Under the leadership of J.-M. Arnauld, elected abbess in 1602 (Mère Angélique), a reform of the abbey dedicated to inward sanctification and serious piety began in 1608. The reform soon led her mother and her five sisters to joi…

Gallicanism

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Development I. Definition The term “Gallicanism” was created in the late 19th century for the state church system characteristic of France, a system that was rooted in the Middle Ages and remained i…

Pufendorf, Samuel

(350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Baron; Jan 8, 1632, Dorfchemnitz – Oct 26, 1694, Berlin). After attending the Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650), Pufendorf studied in Leipzig and Jena from 1650 to 1658. He then took a position in Copenhagen as private tutor in the household of the Swedish ambassador Peter Julius Coyet. During months of Danish imprisonment in 1658, he wrote his Elementorum jurisprudentiae universalis libri duo, dedicated to the elector Palatine Charles Louis, which was published in 1660. This work earned him a call to Heidelberg as the first German profe…

Toussain (Tossanus)

(485 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Peter (Tossanus; 1499, St. Laurent, Lorraine – Oct 5, 1573, Montbéliard), canon in Metz after 1515. His attempt to preach the Reformation in Metz was unsuccessful. In 1535 Tossanus was charged with continuing the Reformation of the Württemberg …

Granvelle

(385 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Nicolas Perrenot de (1484/85, Ornans, France – Aug 27, 1550, Augsburg) was a Burgundian official in the service of the Habsburgs, initially at the court of Besançon. After receiving the Dr.iur., Granvelle became chief councilor of the Franche-Comté in 1518. Charles V named him chief minister in 1524. After the death of his protector, Mercurino Arborio di Gattarina, Granvelle succeeded him as minister for the northern regions ¶ of the Empire in 1530. The emperor's great confidence in Granvelle, despite many accusations of bribery, made him one of…

Huguenots

(3,133 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene | Butler, Jon | Weber, Édith
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Music I. Church History 1. Europe The term Huguenot – whose etymology is unclear, although it probably traces back to the French eyguenot (cf. Ger. Eidgenossen) attested since 1520…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…
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