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Maurice, Frederick Denison

(363 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1805, Normanston, Suffolk, England – Apr 1, 1872, Cambridge, England), Anglican theologian. Raised as a Unitarian (Unitarians/Universalists), Maurice first studied law at Cambridge and, after leaving without taking a degree, he studied theology at Oxford. He was ordained in the Church of England in 1834. After serving in a parish and as chaplain at Guy's Hospital, London, he was elected professor of English literature and history at King's College, London. Six years later…

Keble, John

(272 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 25, 1792, Fairford, Gloucestershire – Mar 29, 1866, Bournemouth), scholar, Anglican priest and one of the leaders of the Catholic Revival in England. Born into a clerical family, at Oxford he achieved considerable academic distinction, being elected (at the age of 19) to a much-coveted fellowship at Oriel College; four years later he was ordained into the Church of England. In 1827 he published a collection of poetry, The Christian Year, which brought widespread fame and recognition. In 1831 he was elected professor of poetry at Oxford. Alarmed …

Liddon, Henry Parry

(182 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1829, North Stoneham, Hampshire – Sep 9, 1890, Weston-super-Mare, Gloucestershire) was an Anglican cleric. Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1852. After a succession of church appointments, he became, in 1870, a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, where his able preaching attracted sizable congregations. A leader of the catholic revival (Oxford Movement), Liddon opposed the advance of both its ritualist and liberal-Catholic wings; the publication of Lux Mundi (1889) proved particularly distressing as well as the growing use of criti…

Stillingfleet, Edward

(94 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1635, Cranborne, Dorset – Mar 27, 1699, Westminster), Latitudinarian theologian and antiquary. After becoming a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in 1653, he published a series of works, including his Irenicum (1659), Origines Sacrae (1662), and Rational Account (1664), which established his reputation as a theologian and brought rapid preferment. He then became, in succession, archdeacon of London, dean of St. Paul’s, and bishop of Worcester. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works: The Works, ed. R. Bentley, 6 vols., 1709/1710 On Stillingfleet: W. …

Scripture Union

(159 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1867, Josiah Spiers established informal religious services for children in Islington, London. These soon became known as the “Children’s Special Service Mission” (CSSM). During the following year, Spiers wrote “God is Love” in the sand at the beach in Llandudno, North Wales, and encouraged children to decorate the letters with shells and seaweed. He then told them stories about Jesus. This would prove to be the first of many CSSM beach services. In 1879, the CSSM was asked to …

Spencer, John

(171 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1630, Bocton, Kent, England, baptized Oct 31, 1630 – May 27, 1693, probably Cambridge, England), English theologian and Hebraist. He ¶ served as fellow (1655) and master (1667) of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, before being appointed dean of Ely (1677). His most influential work, De Legibus Hebraeorum (1685), traced the religious antiquities of the ancient Hebrews and laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the study of comparative religion. He was the first scholar to observe the similarities between Hebre…

Pearson, John

(172 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1613, Great Snoring, Norfolk – Jul 16, 1686, Chester), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Eton and at Queens’ and King’s Colleges, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1639, but had little experience of parish ministry. As a result of his support of the Royalist cause in the Civil War, he was deprived of his appointments; he lived quietly in London during the Commonwealth (O. Cromwell). At the Restoration, he was appointed to a quick succession of Cambridge honors, incl…

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…

Simeon, Charles

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1759, Reading, Berkshire – Nov 13, 1836, Cambridge, UK), English evangelical clergyman. In 1782 he was made a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and, in the following year, appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church. Despite initial opposition, Simeon persevered, eventually becoming one of the most influential figures in the Church of England. His rise to prominence was due to a combination of influences, including his innovative parish ministry, his skill in nurturing seve…

Sancroft, William

(205 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1617, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England – Nov 24, 1693, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England), archbishop of Canterbury and Nonjuror. Fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge from 1642 to 1651, he fled to the Continent after being rejected from his Cambridge fellowship by the Puritans. After the Restoration in 1660, he gained rapid preferment in the Church, being elevated to archbishop in 1668. While in office, he labored in various ways to strengthen the spiritual and political …

London, University of

(268 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1826 the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell, the progressive politicians Henry Brougham and Joseph Hume, as well as philosopher James Mill founded University College, London, to provide a university education for men who were excluded, on religious grounds, from studying at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Dismissed by its critics as “the godless college in Gower Street,” it was joined two years later by an Anglican rival, King's College. In 1836, the government established the Un…

Ramsey, Arthur Michael

(136 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1904, Cambridge, UK – Apr 23, 1988, Oxford, UK), archbishop of Canterbury, was a much beloved and admired priest, theologian, and bishop of broad, yet traditional, Anglo-Catholic leanings. After Cambridge Ramsey was ordained in the Church of England and served in both parish and university appointments. In 1952 Ramsey became bishop of Durham, in 1956 archbishop of York, and in 1961 archbishop of Canterbury, where he labored tirelessly in mission work and the wider Anglica…

Gunpowder Plot

(194 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] On Mar 25, 1605, a small band of Catholics hired a cellar under the Houses of Parliament ¶ in London, storing gunpowder there. Although Guy Fawkes (1570–1606) was not their leader, he became the most famous member of the group. Their aim was to blow up the Houses of Parliament on Nov 5, 1605 – the day Parliament opened – and, at the same time, murder the attending king James I and the members of Parliament, in the hope that this would encourage Catholics to seize control of the government. William …

Latitudinarianism

(480 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] Latitudinarianism, from Lat. latitudo (“breadth”), a moderate teaching, confessionally tolerant and open to the insights of modern science, introduced in the 17th century by Anglican clergy at Cambridge. It was opposed by both the Puritan (I) teachers at the universities and conservative high-church royalists (High Church movement). The advocates of Latitudinarianism were first identified in a letter written by Simon Patrick, a leading member of the party (later bishop of Chichester, then Ely), published under the title A Brief Account of the New Sect of “…

Paley, William

(318 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jul, 1743, Peterborough, UK – May 25, 1805, Lincoln, UK), Anglican theologian, who was educated by his father and then studied at Cambridge before being elected Fellow of Christ’s College there in 1766. In his first book The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), which later became a favorite educational resource, Paley outlined a system of utilitarian ethics (Utilitarianism; see also England, Theology in) in which he anticipated many of the themes of his contemporary, J. Bentham). Paley proved great originality in his Horae Paulinae (1790) in which…

Raikes, Robert

(164 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1735, Gloucester – Apr 5, 1811, Gloucester), founder of the Sunday School movement. Raikes inherited a successful newspaper, the Gloucester Journal, and used the proceeds to promote a variety of philanthropic causes, especially prison reform. In 1780 he and a local curate established a Sunday School in Gloucester, and Raikes publicized its opening in the Journal. The idea attracted wide attention, and Sunday Schools were quickly set up throughout Britain, Ireland, and America. J. Wesley remarked that the schools were “one of th…

Marsh, Herbert

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 10, 1757, Faversham, England – May 1, 1839, Peterborough, England), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Cambridge, in 1779 he became a fellow of St. John's College. While studying in Germany under J.D. Michaelis, he was exposed to the new biblical scholarship, later translating Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament. In 1807 Marsh was appointed Lady Margaret Professor at Cambridge. With his enthusiastically received lectures on biblical criticism (1809–1816), he was among the first to popularize the new German…

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The SPG was established under royal charter by T. Bray in 1701 to supply the “want of learned and orthodox ministers” in the plantations, colonies, and “factories beyond the seas.” The rapidly expanding British Empire presented both challenges and opportunities for the Church of England. The SPG set out to “settle the State of Religion” for the colo­nists before undertaking “the conversion of the Natives.” During the 18th century the SPG’s efforts focused on the American colonies,…

Jacobitism

(208 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] Defined broadly, Jacobitism is a tradition or movement in Great Britain, whose adherents after 1688 supported the hereditary claims of the Roman Catholic Stuart dynasty over the parliamentary title of the Protestant William of Orange (and his Hanoverian successors). Apart from its military and diplomatic dimensions, exemplified in the invasion attempt of 1715 and 1745, Jacobitism also had important intellectual, social, literary, philosophical, nationalistic, and theological dimensions. Not all Jacobites were Roman Cath-¶ olic: many High Church (High C…

James I

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (Stuart, of England; Jun 19, 1566, Edinburgh – Mar 27, 1625, London). In 1603, on the death of Elizabeth I, James VI of Scotland was crowned King James I of England. Opposed to Presbyterianism and the Church of Scotland 's political influence he attempted to impose episcopacy in Scotland. In England, James's ecclesiastical policies met with mixed success. At the Hampton Court Conference (1604) he exhibited considerable theological knowledge and authorized a new translation of the …

Ritualism

(621 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Martin | Carter, Grayson
[German Version] I. Ethics The term ritualism denotes participation in the rituals (Rite and ritual) of a community or religion without inner conviction. It is used in this sense in sociology, ethnology, and religious studies. The outward form of the word itself, a pejorative noun (like dogmatism and fundamentalism), appears to formulate succinctly the ethical assessment of the phenomenon it denotes. The negative assessment of the phenomena classified as “ritualism” is burdened with at least two problems: (1) it is hardly possible to assess with reasonabl…

Jewel, John

(191 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (May 24, 1522, Buden, Devon – Sep 23, 1571, Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire). At Oxford, Jewel, who was influenced by Peter Martyr Vermigli, became one of the intellectual leaders of the English Reformation. Upon the succession of Mary Tudor in 1553, he fled to the continent. At Frankfurt he opposed J. Knox and defended the Book of Common Prayer of 1552. Later he and Vermigli traveled together to Zürich. Upon the accession of Elizabeth I (1558) he returned to England. In 1560 Jewel was appointed bishop of Salisbury, where he exercised a vig…

Corporation Act

(141 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] In December 1661, an Act was passed by the “Cavalier Parliament” which required all mayors, aldermen, councilors, and borough officials to swear loyalty to the king and take “the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England” during the twelve months prior to their election. Conscientious Dissenters were thus removed from office; those who were elected (but who refused to communicate) were fined. Though increasingly ineffective, the Act remained highly contentious; it became a cause célèbre in the Dissenting campaign to enact …

Chapel of Ease

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Tiling, Peter v.
[German Version] I. History – II. Legal Status of Daughter Parishes I. History In the Western church, from the 12th century on separate chapels were established for preaching and administration of the sacraments. They were meant for those who lived in villages far from the parish church or those who could not (afford to) rent a pew. They were also an effective means of extending the church's outreach where it was difficult (or impossible) to establish new parishes. Often found in …

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…
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