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Orestilla

(12 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Fabia [6] O. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Vidacilius

(68 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Italic nomen gentile. C. V. from Asculum was one of the rebelling Italici in the Social Wars [3] 91-89 BC (App. Civ. 1,181). He was in action initially in Picenum, then in Bruttium; in the winter of 90/89 he breached the siege of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo around Asculum, but committed suicide there because of the hopeless situation (App. Civ. 1,207-209; Oros. 5,18,21). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Figulus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Potter’), attested to in the fasti of the Republican period for the family of the Marcii and the writer P.  Nigidius Figulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 322.

Quirinalis

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, from residence on the Mons Quirinalis, first appeared in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 184.

Barba

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Beard’) of the  Cassii,  Lucretii,  Sulpicii and other families (ThlL 2,1727f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Hostus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen of unknown origin (in the sources commonly confused with Hostius),  Hostilius [3] and H. Lucretius Tricipitinus (consul in 429 BC) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Salomies, 30f.

Scaeva

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably originally a Roman personal name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed') e.g. in the Iunii Bruti (Iunius [I 17]) family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 17; 105; 243 2 Schulze, 419.

Creticus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (originally the epithet of a victor) in the family of the Caecilii Metelli ( Caecilius [I 23] and [II 16]) and of Mark Antony [I 8] C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Hostilia, Quarta

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Wife in her second marriage of C. Calpurnius [I 9] Piso (consul 180 BC), condemned for allegedly poisoning her husband in office in order to help to the consulate a son of her first marriage, Q. Fulvius [I 11] Flaccus (Liv. 40,37,5-7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Albanius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] C., senator before 60 BC, father-in-law of P. Sestius (Cic. Sest. 6; MRR 2,487 [1]) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Two studies in Roman nomenclature, 21991, 5.

Silanus

(57 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (possibly from silus, 'snub-nosed'; according to the ancient interpretation from silanus, a gargoyle in the form of a head of Silenus), in the Republican period hereditary in the family of the Iunii (Iunius [I 28-35; II 29-41]); in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 148  Kajanto, Cognomina, 237.

Martha

(81 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Syrian prophetess who came to Rome in 105 BC. Although M. had been banned from practising her art by the Senate, she gained access to members of the high nobility by correctly predicting the outcome of gladiatorial fights. In 102, Iulia [1] sent her to her husband C. Marius [I 1] in Gallia where she helped to lift the morale of the Roman troops who were fighting the Teutons (Plut. Marius 17,2-5 after Posidonius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Siculus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (describing origin: 'from Sicily', and epithet of victors; cf. Cloelius [4-7]; Herennius [I 10]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 52; 193.

Military clientela

(335 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Modern term (e.g. [1. 28]) for the Roman professional armies of the late Imperial period ( Roma I. D.), which had an especially close relationship to their commander and thus let themselves be detailed as his clientela ( cliens ) for his goals interior politics. This ‘militarization of home politics’ began with C. Marius [I 1] and L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, who used the professional army created by Marius to further their own power claims in the civil war of 88-81 BC. They had to promise the soldiers…

Crassus

(101 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, first used as an epithet for abnormal tallness, occasionally with the implication of the figurative meanings ‘rough, uncouth, crude’, soon also used as a surname. In the republican period, the name was used by the Aquilii, Calpurnii, Canidii, Claudii, Licinii, Otacilii, Papirii, Veturii; in the imperial period by the Galerii, Iulii and Sulpicii. The most significant individuals of this name belonged to the Plebeian  Licinii Crassi (L. Licinius C., cos. 95 BC, the orator; M. Licinus C., cos. 70 and 55 BC, the triumvir). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliogra…

Flamininus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Roman cognomen, derived from flamen and designating the son of a flamen, in the Republican period it became hereditary in a branch of the patrician family of the Quinctii. The most important bearer of the name is T.  Quinctius Flamininus ( cos. in 198 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctius, RE 24, 1038 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 74.

Caudex

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘the ship's plank’) of Ap. Claudius C., cos. 264 BC; the original legend was passed down through Seneca (dial. 10,13,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tubero

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tuber, 'swelling'), Aelius [I 12-18]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 246.

Luscus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’), in the Republican period in the families of the Annii, Atilii, Fabii, Furri and Postumii, disappeared by the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 238.

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Pulvillus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('small cushion') in the family of the Horatii (Horatius [5-6]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 348.

Calavius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Campanian family name, whose bearers were highly respected in Capua, and who in the Republican age were one of Rome's foremost enemies (ThlL, Onom. 71). [German version] [1] Calavii Arsonists in Rome, executed 210 BC were executed for arson in Rome in 210 BC (Liv. 26,27). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Novius and Ovius Header of a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC They headed a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC, and after their exposure committed suicide (Liv. 9,26,7). Their father was perhaps Ofilius C., named in Livy (9,7,2-5) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boc…

Silo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period of the leader of the Marsi Q. Poppaedius S., in the Imperial period in the Larcii and Pompeii families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 268  Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 237.

Geminus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] Cognomen (‘twin’) of the Tusculan  Maecius G.; in the fasti of the Republican period otherwise used by the Servilii and Veturii; widespread in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap. 145 Id., FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 294 Walde/Hofmann 1, 586f.

Duilius

(431 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian family that died out in the 3rd cent. BC; in inscriptions Duilius, in manuscripts Duillius (ThlL, Onom. 3, 266f.); mistaken etymology derived the name from duellum-bellum, in the form Duellius, Bellius (Cic. Or. 153; Quint. Inst. 1,4,15; cf. Pol. 1,22,1). [German version] [1] D., C. Cos. 260 BC, commander in the 1st Punic War Consul 260 BC with Cn. Cornelius [I 74] Scipio Asina. After Scipio was captured at Lipara, D. also took over command of the fleet at Messana; he provided its ships with portable boarding bridges ( corvus), and trained the fleet in their use. At M…

Cinna, [2]

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (meaning uncertain) in the families of the  Cornelii and the  Helvii. On the poet C. see Helvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto 106.

Labeo

(87 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived from labea, ‘lip’, originally denoting ‘the thick-lipped one’ (Plin. HN 11, 159); in the Republican period cognomen in families of the Antistii ([I 13]: the L. frequently mentioned in Cicero's correspondence [II 3] is the famous law expert), Atinii ([I 6 - 7]), Fabii ([I 20]) and Segulii; widespread in the Imperial period, among others nickname of the writer Cornelius [II 19] L. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 238 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilizia, 1956, 70 Walde/Hofmann 1, 738.

Aebutius

(340 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman nomen gentile, used since the 5th cent. BC. According to the fasti, members of the family of the Helvae served as consuls several times in the 5th cent. [German version] [1] Tribunus plebis (end of 2nd, beginning of 1st cent. BC) ) Probably tribunus plebis before 63 BC and after the Gracchi. Author of a lex Aebutia, which prohibited those proposing a law and their relatives from taking over a function created by the law (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,21 [1]). If A. still belongs to the second century, he may also be the author of a lex Aebutia about the introduction of formulaic procedure in trial …

Calvius

(45 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name (ThlL, Onom. 110). [German version] C. Cicero, C. People's tribune 454 BC, brought an accusation against the former consul Romilius (Liv. 3,31,5); probably a late annalistic invention [1. 448]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. M. Ogilvie, A commentary on Livy books 1-5, 1965.

Vibulanus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably derived from an unknown place, common particularly in the Fabii (Fabius [I 37-39]) family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 209.

Lateranus

(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (originally ‘the one <from the residence> on the hill’); in the Republican period occurring in L. Sextius L. ( cos. in 366 BC), in the imperial period also in the families of the Claudii, Magii, Plautii and Sextii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 309.

Nobilior

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘especially noble’; nobiles ); prominent in the family of the Fulvii (Fulvius [I 15-17]), but also widespread elsewhere. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 72; 279.

Tuditanus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tudites, 'hammers'), prominent in the Republican period in the Sempronii family (Sempronius [I 22-24]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 22; 91; 108 f.; 343.

Fonteia

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Vestal virgin before 91 until after 68 BC, sister of Fonteius [I 2] (Cic. Font. 46-49). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cluentius

(276 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Italian family name, especially in evidence in the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2, 505f.). [German version] [1] C., L. Italic leader, died in 89 BC Italic leader in the Social War, was defeated by Sulla in the second attempt to raise the siege of Pompeii and killed in 89 BC (App. B Civ. 1,218-221). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Habitus, A. Roman eques from Larinum, 1st half of the 1st cent. BC Roman knight from Larinum in Apulia, known from Cicero's oration Pro Cluentio in 66 BC. After the death of his homonymous father in 88 his mother Sassia married Statius …

Septumuleius

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Roman family name. In 121 BC L. S. delivered the head of C. Sempronius [I 11] Gracchus to the consul C. Opimius [1] and allegedly was given its weight in gold for it (Cic. De or. 2,269; Diod. Sic. 35,29; Plut. C. Gracchus 17,4 f. etc.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bulbus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the onion’) among the Atilii (ThlL 2.2239). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tucca

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of Etruscan origin, Plotius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 106.

Aternius

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Name of a Patrician gens, disappeared early, in Imperial times occasionally the name for slaves and freedpersons (Schulze 269; ThlL 2,1022). In 454 BC, consul A. Varus Fontinalis enacted a law regarding the payment of penalties; in 448, he allegedly became a tribunus plebis though he was a patrician (Liv. 3,65,1; MRR 1,42f.; 50). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Dives

(57 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen indicating wealth in the case of L. Baebius [I 7] D. and L. Canuleius [I 5] D. It became hereditary for the descendants of P.  Licinius Crassus D. ( pontifex maximus in 212 BC; cf. Plin. HN 33,133). Wrongly attributed to the triumvir M.  Licinius Crassus (cos. 70, 55 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ocella

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('small-eyed'). It appeared first in the family of the Livii, from the time of the Late Republic, and then also in the families of the Servii and the Sulpicii (the emperor Galba [2] for instance). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 260 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 239.

Bithynicus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman family cognomen among the Pomponii and for M.  Insteius B. (cos. suff. AD 162) otherwise used among slaves and emancipated slaves (ThlL 2,2018f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Flaminius

(897 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentile name (occupational designation, derived from the priestly office of the flamen [1]). Bearers of the name have emerged from the 3rd cent. BC. But the family is probably older, as can be seen from the place names campus Flaminius and prata Flaminia (Varro, Ling. 5,154; Liv. 3,54,15; 3,58,7) that can, however, also be interpreted as ‘property of the flamines’ (Oros. 5,18,27; [2]). Via Flaminia  F. [1]. [German version] [1] F., C. Cos. 217 BC in the 2nd Punic War Homo novus who was successful in his career despite the resistance of a large part of the nobili…

Asina

(13 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Nickname (‘she-donkey’) in the Cornelian family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Regulus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cogn. (diminutive of rex, 'king'), found in the families of the Atilii (Atilius [I 17-23]) and Livineii (Livineius [I 1-2]) in the Republican Period; in the Imperial Period in other families as well. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316 f.

Decimus

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman first name (ThlL, Onom. 3,73-76), probably did not indicate the place in a sequence (‘the tenth’) of births but the month of the birth; abbreviated D., in the Imperial period also Dec.; Greek Δέκμος, later Δέκιμος. The name was not used by patrician families and is otherwise rare as well (more frequent among the Iunii ( Iunius) Bruti and the Laelii ( Laelius)); in the Imperial period, it is also documented as a cognomen (for example with Aurelius, Flavius, Pacarius) and as a nomen. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 172 Salomies, 27f., …

Aquinus

(107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman personal name and cognomen [1; 2] [German version] [1] Poet of the 1st cent. BC Mentioned in Catull. 14,18 as a bad contemporary poet (at Cic. Tusc. 5,63 Aquinius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. Haruspex in 389 BC Haruspex in 389 BC (Macrob. Sat. 1,16,22; see Liv. 6,1,11 i.a.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] M. Legate in 46 BC Senator, legate (?) of Pompey in Africa in 46 BC, pardoned by Caesar (Bell. Afr. 57; 89,5), probably identical to the legate of C. Cassius 43-42 (gold coin minting: RRC 498/9). MRR 3, 25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibli…

Poblicola

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (Fast. Capitolini, InscrIt 13,1,25; literary form Publicola, Greek Ποπλικόλας/ Poplikólas). Roman cognomen. The etymology is unclear, according to ancient (certainly incorrect) view meaning 'friend of the people' (Liv. 3,18,6). Common in families of the Gellii (Gellius [I 5]) and Valerii. The best-known bearer is P. Valerius P. ( cos. suff. 509 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 256  R.M. Ogilvie, A Comm. on Livy, Books 1-5, 21970, 253  H. Volkmann, s.v. Valerius (302), RE 8A, 180  Walde/Hofmann 2, 339.

Cotta

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the gens Aurelia ( Aurelius [I 2-12 and II 13]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 106.

Turrinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (derived from an unknown place name Turris); cf. Horatius [3] and Mamilius [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 113; 184.
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