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Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Eunus

(200 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὔνους; Eúnous). Syrian, leader of the slave revolts in Sicily in 141-132 BC. He gathered together 400 slaves and conquered Enna; other towns joined the rebellion. Favoured by the good portent of his name (‘well disposed’) and his talent for prophecy [2. 28-29], as a result of his success he was chosen to be king in the Hellenistic manner; he called himself Antiochus (Diod. Sic. 34,2,24; [3]) and took on the traditional insignia of rule, although this indicates his desire for unit…

Diogeiton

(77 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Διογείτων; Diogeítōn). In 401/400 BC, D. was on trial because of abuse of the custody of his brother Diodotus' children and the embezzlement of his fortune. The prosecutor was one of the children of Diodotus, who had died in 409/408; he was also D.'s grandchild, since Diodotus had married the daughter of D. (Lys. or. 32, contra D.). Traill, PAA 325580. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography J. M. Moore, D.'s Dioikesis, in: GRBS 23, 1982, 351-355.

Decebalus

(299 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δεκέβαλος; Dekébalos). D. was the last Dacian king, reigning from c. AD 87-106. In addition to modern-day western and central Transylvania, his kingdom included the Banat and the Walachian plains. According to Cass. Dio (67,6,1-2) he was a match for Rome thanks to his excellent military skills, uniting the Dacian tribes and even persuading Sarmatian and German groups to join him against Rome. After he had conquered parts of Iazygian territory and invaded Moesia in 85/86, a war against Domi…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Evagon

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐάγων / Euágōn, in MSS also as Εὐγαίων / Eugaíōn, Εὐγέων / Eugéōn). Of Samos, hailed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as one of the earliest of the Greek historiographers (De Thucydide 5) and the first Samian historian (last third of the 5th cent. BC), the author of Hôroi Samíōn, which was still referred to by Aristotle; Thucydides, too, used it. In the course of a 2nd cent. BC territorial dispute with Priene, the Samians cited an old border agreement (early 7th cent.), mentioned by E. ─ who thus is one of the earliest local …

Ermanaric,

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (H)ermanaricus (also Ermenrichus, Hermenerig). King of the East Goths who, as the first historically documented  Amal, already belongs to the 10th generation of the Amal family tree (Iord. Get. 79 from Cassiodorus). He was the youngest son of Achiulf, brother of Ansila, Ediulf and Vultuulf, and was regarded as the founder of the ‘younger’ family line which, in AD 515, rejoined the 'older' line, founded by Vultuulf, as a result of the marriage of  Eutharicus with  Amalasuntha (Iord…

Epicteta

(384 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικτήτα; Epiktḗta). Widow of the aristocrat Phoenix from Thera. Under the instruction of her son Andragoras, who died two years after his father, she completed the construction of a shrine to the Muses (mouseion) that Phoenix had started, as a memorial to their son Cratesilochus, but had not been able to finish. In her will (early 2nd cent. BC, preserved epigraphically: IG XII 3,330, l. 1-108), E. entrusted the mouseion to her ‘heiress’ (  epikleros ) daughter Epiteleia. In the will she provided for the setting up of an association o…

Godigisclus

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundian king, son of  Gundiok, lived from c. AD 474 in Geneva, always in the shadow of his older brother  Gundobad (Ennod. Vita Epiphanii 174). In 500, together with the king of the Franks, Chlodovechus ( Clovis I), he defeated Gundobad at Dijon, but in 501 he was killed by the latter when Chlodovechus had to turn against the Visigoths (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 with n. 2.

Ulpia

(127 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] U. Marciana See Marciana. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1a] U. Plotina Named in the year AD 69 on a tabula cerata from Herculaneum. She may have been a sister of M. Ulpius [12] Traianus and hence a maternal aunt of the later emperor Traianus [1] (AE 1993, 461). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] U. Severina Wife of Aurelianus [3] (SHA Aurelian. 50,2), elevated to Augusta probably in AD 274 (CIL III 472; V 29; V 3330; IX 2327; AE 1927,81; 1934,44), mater castrorum et senatus et patriae (AE 1930, 150). Daughter of Ulpius [4] Crinitus (?) …

Laelia

(121 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Elder daughter of C. Laelius [I 2], wife of Q. Mucius Scaevola Elder daughter of C. Laelius [I 2], born 160 BC, wife of Q. Mucius Scaevola. One of her two daughters married the orator L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus, the tutor of Cicero, who observed that L. had adopted the speaking style of her father (Cic. Brut. 211). Cicero may have been encouraged to write of L.'s father ( Laelius sive de amicitia) while in her house. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Younger sister of L. [1], wife of the annalist C. Fannius [I 1] Younger sister of L. [1], born after 160 BC, w…

Lais

(388 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Λαίς; Laís). The ‘general acquaintance’, from λαός (‘people’) [1] or from the Semitic, ‘lioness’. Popular name for hetaerae, which makes identification difficult. [German version] [1] Hetaera from Corinth Hetaera ( Hetaerae) from Corinth. L. is described as beautiful (Ath. 13,587d), quick-witted (in conversation with Euripides in Ath. 13,582cd; he quotes her Eur. Med. 1346), discriminating and expensive; in old age, L. is said to have become impoverished and a dipsomaniac (Ath. 13,570cd). She died in 392 BC (schol. Aristo…

Eutharicus, Eutharic

(142 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of Berimund of the Amal dynasty, called to Italy by Theoderic the Great in AD 515 and married to  Amalasuntha in order to secure the succession (Iord. Get. 298). He was later adopted by Justin as his son-at-arms, received Roman citizenship; at the assumption of his consulate in 519 ─ on the occasion of which Cassiodorus had written a speech (MGH AA 12,465ff.) and probably also compiled his chronicle ─, he was called Flavius E. Cillica (CIL VI 32003). When he responded rig…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Bato

(348 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Dardanian king, around 200 BC Dardanian king who supported the Romans by providing reinforcements in 200 BC in the battle against  Philip V (Liv. 31,28,1-2.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH VIII, 21989, 262 Errington 187. [German version] [2] Rebelling Dalmatian, 6-9 AD Dalmatian from the tribe of Daesidiates. Leader in the Pannonian-Dalmatian revolt of AD 6-9, whose causes Cassius Dio (55,29-34; 56,11-26) and Velleius Paterculus (2,110-116) located in the tax burden and in recruitment practices. After his…

Gelimer

(229 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of  Geisericus, last of the Vandal kings (AD 530-4), took over rulership in 530 after the fall of Hildericus (Procop. Vand. 1,9,8-9; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,3). His adamant refusal of any intervention by Justinian in internal affairs led to war (Procop. Vand. 1,9,10-24). Since G. had dispatched his troops to Sardinia against the rebellious Godas, he could not defend himself either against Pudentius, who was in revolt in Tripolitania, or against  Belisarius, who had landed in …

Calpurnia

(346 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Caesar Daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (Suet. Iul. 21). On the Ides of March AD 44, she pleaded urgently with her husband Caesar to stay away from the Senate session (Suet. Iul. 81,3; Plut. Caes. 63,8-12; Cass. Dio 44,17,1; Val. Max. 1,7,2; Vell. Pat. 2,57,2). Caesar had married the 18-year-old for political reasons in 59 BC (Plut. Caes. 14,8; Pomp. 47,10; App. B Civ. 2,51; Cass. Dio 38,9,1, [1. 75 A.46]). Their marriage remained childless [2. 466]. After Caesar's death, C. transferred his assets to Mark Antony (Plut. Ant. 15; App. B Civ. 2,524). Stroth…

Peace, concept of

(30 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A unified notion of peace, comparable to the modern concept, was unknown in Antiquity. Eirene; Koine Eirene; Pax. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
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