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Lycopeus

(71 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λυκωπεύς; Lykōpeús). Son of the Aetolian hero Agrius [1] who, together with his brothers, dethrones his uncle Oeneus in Calydon in favour of his father. As a result, L., together with his brothers - with the exception of two of them -, is killed by Diomedes [1] (Apollod. 1,77f.; Paus. 2,25,2) or by Tydeus (Diod. Sic. 4,65,2), and Agrius is dethroned (Hyg. Fab. 242). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Cocalus

(119 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κώκαλος; Kṓkalos; Lat. Cocalus). Mythical king, who took over control of Sicily after the destruction of the  Cyclopes (Just. Epit. 4,2,2). He allowed  Daedalus [1], who was fleeing from the Cretan king  Minos, into the city  Camicus (in Paus. 7,4,6 Inykos), as also Minos who was pursuing him; the latter, however, he then had killed in a shower of hot water (schol. Hom. Il. 2,145; Apollod. [see authors/works] 1,14f.) that his daughters poured down on him through the bathroom ceili…

Nessus

(212 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νέσσος/ Néssos, Νέσος/ Nésos). Centaur, son of Ixion and Nephele [2] (= Nubes), who, after the war of the Lapiths (Lapithae) and the centaurs, flees to the river Euenus (= Lycormas), where he works as a ferryman (Apollod. 2,86). When Heracles [1] and his wife Deianira want to cross the river, N. helps Deianira, carrying her across the water, while Heracles walks or swims (Ov. Met. 9,101ff.) to the other side. In the middle of the river, N. wants to rape Deianira. Heracles shoots N. …

Laelaps

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαῖλαψ/ Laîlaps, ‘hurricane’). [German version] [1] Dog of Cephalus The dog of Cephalus, inescapable because of its swiftness. L. is turned to stone during the chase (Ov. Met. 7,771ff.; Hyg. Fab. 189; Serv. Aen. 6,445). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] …

Laias

(112 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαίας, Λαΐας; Laías, Laïas). [German version] [1] Son of the Aegid Hyraeus Son of the Aegid Hyraeus. Together with his brothers, L. erected heroic sanctuaries in Sparta to Cadmus and Aegeus, among others, because the Aegids trace themselves to the Theban dynasty (Paus. 3,15,8; Hdt. 4,147). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Oxylus Son of Oxylus, king of Elis, and Pieria. After the death of his older brother Aetolus, L. takes over the kingdom from his father; L.'s children, however, do not receive the royal title (Paus. 5,4,4f.). A…

Lacedaemon

(132 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λακεδαίμων; Lakedaímōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Taygete Son of Zeus and Taygete (Apollod. 3,116), name-giver of the Taygetus, mountain range; L. inherits the rule from the childless Eurotas (Paus. 3,1,1f.), gives his name to the region, and founds the city of Sparta, which he names after his spouse Sparte. One of their sons, Amyclas, founds the city of Amyclae [1] (Eust. AD Hom. Il. 295,14f.). One of their daughters, Eurydice, marries Acrisius, king of Argus, and becomes mother of …

Melisseus

(109 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μελισσεύς; Melisseús

Mygdon

(131 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μύγδων; Mýgdōn). [German version] [1] King of the Bebrycians King of the Bebrycians, brother of Amycus [1]; killed by Heracles when he attacked Heracles' host, Lycus [5]. After M.'s death, Heracles gives Lycus a large part of the land of the Bebrycians, which is renamed Herakleia (Apollod. 2,100).…

Neikos

(111 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νεῖκος; Neîkos). Personification of hate and strife in Hesiod's creation mythology (Hes. Theog. 229). The goddess Eris, the daughter of Nyx, gives birth to the forces of evil: N., Pseudeis ( pseudeís, lies) and Logoi ( lógoi, wicked talk). In Timon [1. fr. 21], he is named as the brother and servant of Eris. In Empedocles' [1] theory of the origins of the world, N. is the principle of repulsion and separation, the antithesis of Philotes ( philótēs, love). N.  causes the cosmos and the current world to be created from the sphairos where all the forces were mixed together. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) Bibliography

Panchaea

(84 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (παγχαΐα/ panchaía sc. χώρα/ chṓra, ‘a very splendid land’). P. is the main island in a fictional archipelago first mentioned by Euhemerus and located in the Indian Ocean: “Sailing from happy Arabia out into the Ocean”, one arrives “in a still more blessed land”, the “very splendid land” (Diod. Sic. 5,41,3; 6,1,4). P. is  seen as the ideal of a country both for its natural qualities and for its political and economic conditions (Euhemerus FGrH 63 F 2). Utopia Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Mimas

(231 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Μίμας). [German version] [1] Titan Giant, killed either by Zeus' thunderbolt in the fight to rule Olympus (Eur. Ion 212ff.), or by Ares' lance, after M. had torn the island of L…

Cragaleus

(126 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κραγαλεύς). Son of  Dryops in the land of Dryope. C., who is wise and just, is chosen by  Apollo,  Artemis, and  Hercules to act as arbitrator in their dispute about the Epirote city  Ambracia. Apollo demands the city for himself because his son rules the land of Dryope. Artemis demands it because she had liberated the city from a tyrant, and Hercules because he defeated the Celts, the Thesproteans and the Epiroteans. C. awards the city to Hercules and in return is changed into a…

Clytius

(135 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κλυτίος, Κλύτιος; Klytíos, Klýtios). [German version] [1] Giant Giant, who was killed either by Hecate with flaming torches or by Hephaestus with red-hot irons (Apollod. 1,37). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alcmaeon and Arsinoe [I 3] Son of Alcmaeon and  Arsinoe [I 3]; grandson of Amphiaraus (Apollod. 3,…

Norax

(44 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νῶραξ/ Nôrax). Son of Hermes and Erytheia, daughter of Geryoneus. According to legend, N. led the Iberians out of Spanish Tartessus to Sardinia, and founded the first town there, which was named Nora [1] after him (Paus. 10,17,5). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Carpus

(196 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Κάρπος; Kárpos). [German version] [1] Son of Zephyrus and a certain Hore Handsome youth, son of Zephyrus and of a certain Hore ( Horae). He organizes a swimming race with  Calamus, his best friend, but drowns in the event. In mourning, his friend kills himself and is turned into reeds. C. is turned into a crop of the field (Nonnus, Dion. 11,385-481). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] C. of Antioch Mathematician A mathematician, who lived presumably in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD. Information on him is given in four fragments by …

Mentor

(446 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέντωρ; Méntōr). [German version] [1] Father of Imbrios of Pedaion Father of Imbrius of Pedaeum (Hom. Il. 13,171). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alkimos, companion of Odysseus M. of Ithaca, son of Alcimus (Hom. Od. 22,235), companion of Odysseus, who on his departure to Troy hands over to M. the supervision of his household (ibid. 2,225ff.). In the People's Assembly M. firmly opposes the behaviour of the suitors (ibid. 2,224ff.). The goddess Athena often takes on his form in order to help Telemachus wi…

Ogygus/Ogyges

(158 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Ὤγυγος; Ṓgygos/Ὠγύγης; Ōgýgēs). The name O. is probably pre-Greek, and may derive from the Lydian-Carian migrations; at that time, O. was worshipped as a god. The Boeotian goddesses of oaths, the Praxidikai, were said to be his daughters (Paus. 9,33,5; Suda s.v. Πραξιδίκη; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρεμίλη). Ancient king of Boeotia (the adjective ὠγύγιος/ ōgýgios is used for 'Boeotian' and 'ancient': Suda s.v. Ὠγύγια κακά; Ὠγύγιον); autochthon and king of the Ectenians (Paus. 9,5,1); son of Boeotus (schol. Eur. Phoen. 1113) and husband of Th…

Caphene

(58 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Καφένη; Kaphénē). Carian maiden, who, out of love for the Melian Nymphius betrays her people by divulging their plan to invite the Melians to a feast so as to kill them underhandedly. Instead, the Carians were slain. In return, C. becomes the wife of Nymphius (Plut. Mor. 246d-247a, 207f.; Polyaen. 8,46). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Pheidippus

(287 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φείδιππος; Pheídippos). [German version] [1] Son of Thessalus, naval commander at Troy Son of Thessalus, brother of Antiphus, consequently grandson of  Heracles [1] and Chalciope [3] (Hyg. Fab. 97,14). One of Helen [1]'s suitors (Hyg. Fab. 81). He and his brother command 30 ships at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,676-680). On the voyage home he is blown off course to Thesprotia, where he also dies. In Odysseus's tall stories  (Hom. Od. 14,316; 19,287) the king Pheidon of the Thesproti appears twice. The latter's name is…

Megapenthes

(223 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μεγαπένθης/ Megapénthēs, ‘very sorrowful’). [German version] [1] Son of King Proetus of Argos Son of King Proetus of Argos (Apollod. 2,29), father of Argeus and grandfather of Anaxagoras (Paus. 2,18,4) or father of Anaxagoras and Iphianira (Diod. Sic. 4,68,4; cf. also Iphianassa [1]). M. exchanged kingdoms with Perseus, so that he ruled over Argos and Perseus over Tiryns. According to Hyginus (Hyg. Fab. 244)…
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