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(1,407 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
The Arabic word rasm , in Turkish resm , resim , means in Ottoman usage state practices and organisations as distinguished from those based on Islamic principles and traditions. Specifically, the word indicates taxes and dues introduced by the state called rüsūm-i ʿurfiyye [see ʿurf ] as distinguished from the s̲h̲arʿī taxes which are called ḥuḳūḳ-i̊ s̲h̲erʿiyye . In the Ottoman Empire, resm was sometimes called ḥaḳḳ in the sense of legal right, as in the term ḥaḳḳ-i̊ ḳarār , a fee which asipahī or feudal cavalryman took when vacant mīrī [ q.v.] land was assigned to a peasant. The term resm is …

Ḥaydar-Og̲h̲lu, more correctly Ḳara Ḥaydar-Og̲h̲lu, Meḥmed

(789 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, sometimes given the title of “Beg”. His father, Ḳara Ḥaydar, is mentioned in the sources simply as a brigand; according to Ewliyā Čelebi ( Seyāḥatnāme , iv, 472-3, and cf. Naʿīmā, iv, 240) he took to the mountains in about 1050/1640 and began to plunder caravans in the passes between Eskis̲h̲ehir and Izmir (Smyrna). During the Grand Vizierate of Ḳara Muṣṭafā (and hence before 1052/1643, when the vizier was executed), a nefīr-i ʿāmm against Ḳara Ḥaydar was proclaimed in Anatolia, i.e., the civilian population was impressed in the hunt. He was surrounded near Uluborlu and killed. The first …


(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…


(2,738 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, from the Arabic iyāla , “management, administration, exercise of power” (cf. Turkish translation of Fīrūzābādī’s Ḳāmūs by ʿĀṣim, Istanbul 1250/1834, iii, 135); in the Ottoman empire the largest administrative division under a beglerbegi [ q.v.], governor-general. In this sense it was officially used after ¶ 1000/1591. The assumption that under Murād III the empire was divided up into eyālets (M. d’Ohsson, Tableau général de l’empire ottoman , vii, 277) must be an error since the term does not occur in the documents of the period. Instead we always find beglerbegilik and wilāyet ( wilāy…

Dār al-ʿAhd

(697 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, “the Land of the Covenant”, was considered as a temporary and often intermediate territory between the Dār al-Islām [ q.v.] and the Dār al-Ḥarb [ q.v.] by some Muslim jurists (see Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Kitāb al-Umm , Cairo 1321, iv, 103-104; Yaḥyā b. Ādam, Kitāb al-K̲h̲arād̲j̲ , trans. A. ben Shemesh, Leiden 1958, 58). Al-Māwardī ( Kitāb al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭāniyya , trans. E. Fagnan, Algiers 1915, 291) states that of the lands which pass into the hands of the Muslims by agreement, that called Dār al-ʿAhd is the one the proprietorship of whi…

Dār al-Ḍarb

(4,784 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
, the mint, was an indispensable institution in the life of mediaeval Middle Eastern society because of the highly developed monetary character of its economy, particularly during the early centuries of Muslim domination. The primary function of the mint was to supply coins for the needs of government and of the general public. At times of monetary reforms the mints served also as a place where obliterated coins could be exchanged for the new issues. The large quantities of precious metals which were stored in the mints helped to make them serve as ancillary treasuries. Soon after their c…


(19,300 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Lambton, A.K.S. | Baer, G.
, commercial privileges, capitulations. i. The earliest documentary evidence for commercial privileges emanating from Muslim chanceries in the Mediterranean world dates from the 6th/12th century. While it is unlikely that these documents represent the earliest manifestation of that diplomatic and commercial activity between rulers of Islam and Christendom which culminated in the Ottoman Capitulations, it is probably useless to speculate upon either the form or the language of chancery instruments bef…


(4,709 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, in English Gallipoli , town on the European coast and at the Marmara end of the Dardanelles (Turkish: Čanaḳ-ḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊ [ q.v.]), in the Ottoman period a naval base and the seat of the kapudan-pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], now an ilçe belonging to the il of Çanakkale; the name derives from the Greek Kalliopolis, Kallioupolis, also Kallipolis (for the various forms see E. Oberhummer, in Pauly Wissowa, x, 1659-60). ¶ When, towards 700/1300, the Turks of Anatolia first concerned themselves with the town, it was one of the greatest and strongest Byzantine fortresses in Thrace (P. Lemerle, L’émirat d’…


(692 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also es̲h̲künd̲j̲i , means in Turkish ‘one who rushes, goes on an expedition’ ( es̲h̲kin is defined by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī [ Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Türk , i, 100; = Besim Atalay’s T. tr., i, 109] as ‘long journey’, and es̲h̲kind̲j̲i as ‘galloping courier’; cf. also Taniklariyle tarama sözlüǧü , ed. Türk Dil Kurumu, i-iv, s.v.; the verb es̲h̲mek , to go on an expedition, was later replaced in Ottoman Turkish by mülāzemet , Ar. mulāzama ). As a term in the Ottoman army es̲h̲kind̲j̲i meant in general a soldier who joined the army on an expedition. Thus es̲h̲kind̲j̲i timariots (see tīmār …


(2,091 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the Balkan peninsula. The word Balkan means mountain or mountain range and, in the form of Balkanli̊k , rugged zone in Turkish. The etymology of the word is now linked with balk , mud, and the diminutive suffix, -an in Turkish (according to H. Eren). There is a mountain called Balk̲h̲an in Türkmenistan. The word Balkan was used first by the Ottomans in Rumeli in its general meaning of mountain, as in Kod̲j̲a-Balkan, Čatal-Balkan, and Ungurus-Balkani̊ (the Carpathians). But specifically it was applied to the Haemus range of the ancient and mediaeval…


(623 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, Mawlānā ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-D̲j̲amālī , Ottoman S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām from 908/1502 to 932/1526, also called simply ʿAlī Čelebi or Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, was of a family of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s and scholars of Ḳaramān who had settled in Amasya. D̲j̲amālī was born in this city (Ḥ. Ḥusām al-Dīn, Amasya taʾrīk̲h̲i , i, Istanbul 1327, 105, 321). After his studies under such famous scholars as Mollā K̲h̲usraw in Istanbul and Ḥusām-zāde Muṣliḥ al-Dīn in Bursa D̲j̲amālī was appointed a mudarris at the ʿAlī Beg Madrasa in Edirne. His cousin, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad D̲j̲amālī…


(1,318 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, originally Bog̲h̲dān-ili or Bog̲h̲dān-wilāyeti (‘the land of Bog̲h̲dān’), Turkish name of Moldavia, so called after Bog̲h̲dān who in 760/1359 founded a principality between the Eastern flanks of the Carpathians and the Dniester (Turla). The name Bog̲h̲dān-ili appears in the ḥükm of Meḥemmed II dated 859/1455 (Kraelitz, Osm. Urk. Table I). The name Ḳara-Bog̲h̲dān is found in the letter of Iminek dated 881/1476 (Belleten, no. 3-4, 644) and in the Ottoman chroniclers generally. The principality suffered its first raid ( aḳi̊n ) by the Ottomans in 823/142…


(2,891 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also called burusa by the Ottomans after the ancient city of Prusa (προῦσα) on the northern foothills of Mysian Olympus, became the main capital of the Ottoman state between 726-805/1326-1402. It was mentioned by Pachymeres along with Nicaea and Philadelphia as one of the three principal cities still in the hands of the Byzantines when the Turkish borderers invaded the whole of western Anatolia about 699/1300. According to ʿĀs̲h̲iḳ Pas̲h̲azāde (ed. Fr. Giese, 22-23) the Ottomans were able to lay siege to Bursa for the first time when they invaded the Bursa pl…


(280 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, also called benlāk in the 9th/15th century, an Ottoman ʿörfī ( ʿurfī ) tax paid by married peasants ( muzawwad̲j̲ reʿāyā ) possessing a piece of land less than half a čift [ q.v.] or no land, the former being called ekinlü bennāk or simply bennāk and the latter d̲j̲abā bennāk or d̲j̲abā . The word bennāk might possibly be derived from the Arabic verb banaka . Actually the bennāk resmi made part of the čift resmi [ q.v.] system and can be considered originally as consisting of two or three of the seven services ( ḳulluḳ , Ḵh̲idmet ) included in the čift resmi. The rate of bennāk was 6 or 9 akča

Selīm I

(5,008 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, in official documents Selīms̲h̲āh, nicknamed Yavuz or the Grim, ninth Ottoman sultan (reigned from 7 Ṣafar 918/24 April 1512 to 8 S̲h̲awwāl 926/21 September 1520), conqueror of eastern Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, and the first Ottoman sultan entitled K̲h̲ādim al-Ḥaramayn al-S̲h̲arīfayn or Servitor of Mecca and Medina. The struggle for the throne, 1509-13. To comprehend the circumstances and nature of the fierce struggle for the throne between Bāyezīd’s three sons Ḳorḳud, Aḥmed and Selīm, we have to keep in mind that Turco-Mongol peoples firmly be…


(1,703 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, ( bāyezīd ) I, called Yi̊ldi̊ri̊m, “the Thunderbolt”, Ottoman sultan (regn. 19 D̲j̲umādā II 791-13 S̲h̲aʿbān 805/15 June 1389-8 March 1403), born in 755/1354 of Murād I and Gül-čiček Ḵh̲ātūn. In about 783/1381 he was appointed governor of the province which was taken from the Germiyānids in guise of a dowry from his wife, Sulṭān Ḵh̲ātūn. Settled in Kütahya, he became responsible for the Ottoman interests in the East. He distinguished himself as an impetuous soldier (hence hi…


(3,991 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, the plateau between the Danube and the Lom river in the North, the Black Sea in the East and the Prowadijska river or the Balkan range in the South. Deli Orman in This area is distinguished from the steppe region, Dobrud̲j̲a-Ki̊ri̊, in the East which is considered as the Dobrud̲j̲a proper. Called Scythia Minor in the Graeco-Roman period, it was included in the Byzantine province of Paristrion (Bard̲j̲ān in Idrīsī’s world map) in 361/972. In Bulgarian Karvunska Chora, it was ‘the land of Karbon…


(446 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, a designation for the Turks from al-Rūm [ q.v.], which was once under the Eastern Roman Empire. The name Rūmī was widespread in all eastern Islamic countries, including the Arab lands, Persia, Central Asia and Indonesia, from the 9th/15th century onwards. The Ottomans restricted the name Rūm to the provinces in the Amasya and Sivas areas. The Rūmīs were appreciated particularly for their tactical skills and for skills in the making of firearms. Rūmī mercenaries were employed by the Mamlūk sultans, the rulers of Arabia, ʿIrāḳ, and, thereafter, by the Indian and Indon…


(1,747 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, as a financial term, assignation; in Islamic finance, an assignation on a muḳāṭaʿa [ q.v.] effected by order of the ruler in favour of a third party. The term is applied both to the mandate for the payment and to the sum paid. It is already established in these senses in ʿAbbāsid finance (see F. Løkkegaard, Islamic taxation in the classic period, Copenhagen 1950, 63-5). In the ʿAbbāsid empire, ḥawāla was widely used in both state and private finances to avoid the dangers and delays inherent in the transport of cash. The mandates were known as suftad̲j̲a [ q.v.] or ṣakk [ q.v.]. Thus we know tha…


(924 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
Turkish term for falconer, from dog̲h̲an , falcon ( tog̲h̲an in Ki̊pčak Turkish, cf. al-Tuḥfa al-zakiyya fi ’l-lug̲h̲a al-Turkiyya , ed. B. Atalay, Istanbul 1945, 260), and in general use any kind of bird of prey. Bāzdār , from Persian, was also frequently used for the dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ . In the Ottoman empire the term dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ in the same sense as in later periods was found as early as the 8th/14th century (cf. P. Wittek, Zu einigen frühosmanischen Urkunden , in WZKM, liv (1957), 240; lvii (1961), 103; for dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ čiftligi see H. Inalcık, Sûret-i defter-i sancak-i Arvanid
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