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Elbogen, Ismar

(189 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1874, Schildberg, Posen – Aug 1, 1943, New York), Jewish historian and influential teacher in the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums (School for the Study of Judaism) in Berlin. He studied at the University of Breslau and in the Jewish theological seminary there. 1899–1903, he taught at the Collegio Rabbinico Italiano in Florence and, from 1903, at the Hochschule in Berlin. In 1938, he emigrated to the USA and taught there in various institutions. His 1913 Der jüdische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung (ET: Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History, 1993), still considered standard, examines the development of the Jewish liturgy from the rabbinic period on. Elbogen was a leader in the liberal movement within German Judaism and co-editor of Encyclopedia Judaica and Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland

Dubnow, Simon Markovich

(218 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (Sep 10, 1860 Mislaw, Belarus – Dec 8, 1941, Riga) was formative for Jewish historiography and a leading thinker in “autonomist” Jewish nationalism. He worked in various cities in Russia. In 1922, he emigrated to Berlin and in 1933 to Riga, where he was murdered by the National Socialists. Underlying his extensive work is a sociological conception that stands in contrast to the dominant idealist concept of history proposed primarily by H. Graetz. In his magnum opus, Die Weltgeschichte des jüdischen Volkes (10 vols., 1925–1929; ET: History of the Jews, 5 vols., 1967–19…

Bomberg, Daniel

(113 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (c. 1458, Antwerp – c. 1553, Antwerp) was the most important printer of Hebrew books in the 16th century. Bomberg ran a publishing house in Venice from 1516 to 1538/39 and, in conjunction with Jewish scholars, published the first (1517/18) and second (1524/25; the basis of all other editions) rabbinic Bibles as well as the first complete editions of both Talmuds (1520–1523). The pagination of Bomberg's editions of the Talmud was adopted by all later editions. Yehoyada Amir Bibliography A.A. Freiman, “Daniel Bomberg und seine hebräische Druckerei in Venedig,” ZHB 10, 1906, 32–36 J. Bloch, Venetian Printers of Hebrew Books, 1976, 64–88 A.M. Haberman, המדפיס דניאל בומברג, 1987.

Cohen, Hermann

(509 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (Jul 4, 1842, Coswig – Apr 4, 1918, Berlin). The philosopher and Jewish theologian Hermann Cohen was one of the intellectual leaders of liberal Judaism (III) and a cofounder of the neo-Kantian “Marburger Schule” (“Marburg school of thought”). His book on metaphysics, Logik der reinen Erkenntnis (1902), constructs a strict metaphysics that rejects sensory data as the starting point for the process of scientific philosophy. His Ethik des reinen Willens (1904) posits the “pure will” as the criterion of what is ethical; it does not focus on know…

Buber, Martin

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1878, Vienna – Jun 13, 1965, Jerusalem) was one of the most important philosophers and theologians of the 20th century. He was a theoretician of Zionism, a biblical scholar, and a pioneer of research into Hasidism, and indeed into religion as a whole. In the field of Jewish studies, Buber was the first “western Jew” to discover the inherent strength and vitality of Hasidism, which he regarded as a great example of the power of religion to renew life. He published several books on Hasidism: theoretical works, collections of Hasidic narratives, and the novel Gog and Ma…

Buber, Salomon

(106 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (Feb 12, 1827, Lviv – Dec 18, 1906, Lviv), one of the most important scholars of ¶ Jewish Midrash and Haggadah in the 19th century, scion of a famed rabbinic family, lived as an Orthodox Jew, bore the title “Imperial Adviser,” and was the first to publish a long series of midrashic works with texts edited with academic care, also including some never before published, thereby placing midrash research on a firm philological foundation. Furthermore, he reconstructed texts transmitted only fragmentarily and edited many midrash editions. Yehoyada Amir Bibliography M. Rein…

Divine Attributes

(4,975 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Brümmer, Vincent | Schmidt, Werner H. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. Islam I. Religious Studies In the context of rational Christian metaphysics, the knowability of God is assumed and God-talk is substantiated in such a way that certain attributes, such as holiness (Sacred and profane: V), eternity, …

Eternal Life

(6,584 words)

Author(s): Braun, Hans-Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Vouga, François | van den Brom, Luco J. | Necker, Gerold | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Judaism ¶ I. Religious Studies Concepts of the hereafter do not, of themselves, necessarily contain statements concerning eternal life. On the contrary, concepts of the hereafter develop with dynamics of their own and thus variability. Eternal life and …


(6,223 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Gertz, Jan Christian | Backhaus, Knut | Sanders, E.P. | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity I. History of Religions Immediate and comprehensive solidarity appertains only in the most elementary form of human society (in the “family,” which can be variously structured according to culture); all other forms of solidarity are “artificial,” determined by more or less explicit rules; one can subsume this under the term “covenant,” in which the purposes, realms of social…