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Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Ghaus
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ (d. 1965), pioneer in the education of Muslim women in the Indian subcontinent. He was born on 21 June 1874, in a Kas̲h̲mīrī Sāsan (Hindu) Brahman family in the village of Bhān Tani (district of Punch in Kas̲h̲mīr valley). Being a Hindu at birth, he was named Thākur Dās. His father, Mehta Gormukh Sing̲h, was a local landlord. According to the traditions of his Kas̲h̲mīrī Brahman family, his basic education in Persian was initiated under the tutorship of Ḳāḍī Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Kas̲h̲mīrī. Later, he was admitted to the maktab of Miyān Niẓām al-Dīn Wazīr; there he was taught the S̲h̲āh-nāma…

al-Marʾa

(28,871 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N. | Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Afshar, Haleh | Ansari, Ghaus
(a) Woman. 1. In the Arab world. For a long time, the problem of woman has been avoided or dealt with only partially or in a biased way, but now a general twinge of conscience has brought it to the focus of our attention. Not just one but many different problems confront the Arab woman and affect how she is seen by society. There is the legal aspect, defining the precise relationship between divine and human law; there is the collection of “distorted pictures” (the expression used by Etiemble ¶ with which literature in particular presents the “myth” of woman; and there is feminine b…

Nikāḥ

(10,105 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | Layish, A. | Shaham, R. | Ansari, Ghaus | Otto, J.M. | Et al.
(a.), marriage (properly, sexual intercourse, but already in the Ḳurʾān used exclusively of the contract of marriage). In the present article, marriage is dealt with as a legal institution; for marriage customs, see ʿurs . I. In Classical Islamic Law 1. The essential features of the Muslim law of marriage go back to the customary law of the Arabs which previously existed. In this, although there were differences according to districts and the conditions of the individual cases, the regulations governing marriage were based upon the pa…