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al-Marʾa

(28,137 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N. | Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A. K. S. | Afshar, Haleh | Ansari, Ghaus
(a.) «la femme». I. — Monde arabe. Longtemps éludé ou traité partiellement et partialement, le problème de la femme est actuellement l’objet d’une prise de conscience générale. Or, plutôt qu’un problème, ce sont des problèmes pluriels et complexes qui se posent, pour la femme arabe, selon le point de vue où se place l’observateur; il y a le point de vue légal, sous l’angle précis des rapports entre loi divine et loi humaine; il y a l’ensemble des «images déformées» qui, selon l’expression d’Étiemble, c…

Nikāḥ

(10,628 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | Layish, A. | Shaham, R. | Ansari, Ghaus | Otto, J.M. | Et al.
(a.), mariage (proprement: relation sexuelle, mais déjà dans le ḳurʾān employé exclusivement dans le sens de contrat de mariage). Dans le présent article, le mariage sera étudié du point de vue juridique. Sur les cérémonies qui l’accompagnent, voir ʿUrs. I. dans l’islam classique II. dans le monde islamique moderne 1. Les pays arabe, persans et turcs du Proche Orient 2. Dans l’Inde musulmane jusqu’en 1930 [voir ʿUrs] 3. Dans l’Inde musulmane après 1930 4. En Indonésie 5. En Afrique orientale 6. Au Nigéria I. Dans l’islam classique. 1. Les traits essentiels du droit matrimonial isl…

Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Ghaus
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ (m. en 1965), pionnier de l’enseignement des femmes musulmanes dans le sous-continent indien. Il naquit le 21 juin 1874 dans une famille de brahmanes sāsans (hindous) au Kas̲h̲mīr, dans le village de Bhān Tani (district de Punch dans la vallée du Kas̲h̲mīr), Hindou de naissance, on lui donna le nom de Thākur Dās. Son père, Mehta Gormuk̲h̲ Singh, était un propriétaire terrien local. Suivant les traditions de sa famille brahmane kas̲h̲mirie, il commença son éducation en persan auprès d’un précepteur, Ḳāḍī Ḳuṭb al-dīn Kas̲h̲mīrī. Par la suite, il fut admis au maktab de Miyān N…

Nikāḥ

(10,105 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | Layish, A. | Shaham, R. | Ansari, Ghaus | Otto, J.M. | Et al.
(a.), marriage (properly, sexual intercourse, but already in the Ḳurʾān used exclusively of the contract of marriage). In the present article, marriage is dealt with as a legal institution; for marriage customs, see ʿurs . I. In Classical Islamic Law 1. The essential features of the Muslim law of marriage go back to the customary law of the Arabs which previously existed. In this, although there were differences according to districts and the conditions of the individual cases, the regulations governing marriage were based upon the pa…

al-Marʾa

(28,871 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N. | Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Afshar, Haleh | Ansari, Ghaus
(a) Woman. 1. In the Arab world. For a long time, the problem of woman has been avoided or dealt with only partially or in a biased way, but now a general twinge of conscience has brought it to the focus of our attention. Not just one but many different problems confront the Arab woman and affect how she is seen by society. There is the legal aspect, defining the precise relationship between divine and human law; there is the collection of “distorted pictures” (the expression used by Etiemble ¶ with which literature in particular presents the “myth” of woman; and there is feminine b…

Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Ansari, Ghaus
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ (d. 1965), pioneer in the education of Muslim women in the Indian subcontinent. He was born on 21 June 1874, in a Kas̲h̲mīrī Sāsan (Hindu) Brahman family in the village of Bhān Tani (district of Punch in Kas̲h̲mīr valley). Being a Hindu at birth, he was named Thākur Dās. His father, Mehta Gormukh Sing̲h, was a local landlord. According to the traditions of his Kas̲h̲mīrī Brahman family, his basic education in Persian was initiated under the tutorship of Ḳāḍī Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Kas̲h̲mīrī. Later, he was admitted to the maktab of Miyān Niẓām al-Dīn Wazīr; there he was taught the S̲h̲āh-nāma…