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Formula of Concord

(1,918 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg | Wengert, Timothy J.
1. Background The Book of Concord (1580), as a collection of the most important 16th-century Lutheran confessional writings (Confessions and Creeds), has formal validity to this day in most Lutheran churches. The final text in that collection, the Formula of Concord (1577), by claiming to repeat and explain the Augsburg Confession, using both affirmation (“we believe, teach, and confess …”) and negation (“we reject and condemn …”), defines afresh the main articles of the Christian religion as M. Luther (1483–1546), P. Melanchthon (1497–1560), and other Reformers expounded them. Alr…

Orthodoxy

(6,002 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg | Sparn, Walter | Muller, Richard A.
1. Lutheran Orthodoxy 1.1. Epoch The term “Lutheran orthodoxy” (sometimes “old Lutheran orthodoxy” or “old Protestant orthodoxy”) is ill adapted to describe this specific form of Reformation Christianity, which extended between the Reformation and the Enlightenment. Radical Pietism called the period orthodox because of (1) its interest in pure doctrine alone and not also in a holy life in devout fellowship and (2) the alliance between ecclesiastical and secular government. But this summary was a cari…