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Narnālā

(305 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a hill-fort in the Barār region of ¶ India [see berār ], in lat. 21°15′N. and long. 77°4′E., in the former Ḥaydarābād native state (now in Maharās̲h̲tra State), at the southernmost end of the Satpura hills. The fortress is presumably pre-Muslim, since Firis̲h̲ta ( Guls̲h̲an-i Ibrāhīmī ), states that it was restored and repaired by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Bahmanī between 828-31/1425-8, and the earliest buildings there appear to be of the Bahmanī period, although later the fort passed into ʿImād S̲h̲āhī [ q.v.] hands. It played an important role in the warfare of the rulers in the Decca…

Elurā

(155 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
The Elurā (Ellora) caves, near Dawlatābād [ q.v.], appear in the history of Muslim India only as the scene of the capture of the Gud̲j̲arāt princess Deval Devī, the future bride of Ḵh̲iḍr Ḵh̲ān [ q.v.], for ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī by Alp Ḵh̲ān. who had given his forces leave to visit the cave temples (Firis̲h̲ta, Lucknow lith., i, 117). These caves were justly famous and were described by some early travellers, e.g., Masʿūdī, iv, 95, copied with much distortion of names by Ḳazwīnī, cf. Gildemeister, Scriptorum Arabutn de rebus Indicis , text 79, trans. 221; Musl…

Gāwilgaŕh

(839 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, in the histories also Gāwīl , Gāwīlgaŕh , a fortress “of almost matchless strength” (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Āʾīn -i Akbarī , Eng. tr. Jarrett, ii, 237) in Berār, Central India, lat. 21° 20′ N., long. 77° 18′ E., seven kos (about 25 km.) north-west of Eličpur (Iličpur [ q.v.]). According to Firis̲h̲ta the fortress was built by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Walī [see bahmanīs ] in 829/1425-6; but from its name it appears to have been a former stronghold of the Gāwalī chiefs, and it is more likely that Aḥmad S̲h̲āh merely strengthened the fortifications during t…

D̲j̲ālor

(645 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan, some 75 miles south of D̲j̲odhpur on the left bank of the Sukrī river. Although the troops of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī had passed through D̲j̲ālor on their return from the conquest of Gud̲j̲arāt in 696/1297, it was not then occupied by them. In Ḏj̲umādā I 705/December ¶ 1305, however, that king sent ʿAyn al-Mulk, governor of Multān, on an expedition to D̲j̲ālor, Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn and Čandērī; he was opposed by an army of 150,000 Hindūs on his entry into Mālwā, and his victory over them, which brought Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn, D̲h̲ār, Mānd́ū, and Čandērī [ qq.v.] into M…

Ḥabs̲h̲ī

(2,688 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, term used in India for those African communities whose ancestors originally came to the country as slaves, in most cases from the Horn of Africa, although some doubtless sprang from the slave troops of the neighbouring Muslim countries. The majority, at least in the earlier periods, may well have been Abyssinian, but certainly the name was applied indiscriminately to all Africans, and in the days of the Portuguese slave-trade with India many such ‘Ḥabs̲h̲īs’ were in fact of the Nilotic and Bantu races. There is little detailed information concerning the numbers, the status an…

Mathurā

(367 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(earlier English spelling, now discarded, “Muttra”), an Indian city lying between Dihlī and Āgrā, of considerable antiquity and of high reputation in India as a place of high religious sanctity for Hindūs and, formerly, for D̲j̲ayns and Buddhists also; it was already a place of some renown when it became the eastern of the two Kus̲h̲āna capitals. It is, surprisingly, not mentioned in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , and only incidentally by al-Bīrūnī, although for Ptolemy it had been Μόδουρα τῶν Θηῶν. Its great reputation led to its being plundered b…

Naldrug

(765 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a small town in the former ʿUt̲h̲mānābād district of Ḥaydarābād State, situated in 17°49′N., 76°29′E., now in Mahāras̲h̲t́ra; its fort, standing above the ravine of the Bōrī river, is one of the best fortified strongholds in the Deccan. The name also appears as Naldurg, perhaps the better form ( durg = Skr. durga “ fort “). It does not figure in the Deccan campaign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luk, and so probably came into Bahmanī possession after the imperial forces had withdrawn, in the late 8th/14th century; its stone fortifications, which appear to be …

Kalpī

(478 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, once a powerful town in Uttar Prades̲h̲, northern India, 26 8′ N., 79 45′ E. The old town and fort stand on clay cliffs overlooking the river Ḏj̲amnā [ q.v.]; there is a modern town to the south-east of the old one, which has some commercial importance and where a fine quality paper is still made by hand. The town was traditionally founded by a rād̲j̲ā of Kannawd̲j̲ in the 4th century A.D., and fell into Muslim hands in the first conquest in 593/1196. The high fort, walled on three sides and defended on the fourth by the cliffs and rive…

Naḳl

(1,528 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(a.), transport. 1. In the central Islamic lands and North Africa. See for this ʿaraba ; barīd ; d̲j̲āmūs in Suppl.; faras ; fīl ; ibil ; kārwān ; k̲h̲ān ; mawākib ; milāḥa ; safīna ; tid̲j̲āra . 2. In India. Travel on foot is obviously such an everyday occurrence between village and village that it receives scant mention in the texts; pilgrimages might be made on foot entirely, for pietistic reasons, such as Akbar’s to the tomb of Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī from Āgrā to Ad̲j̲mēr, but generally foot-journeys are the accompaniment to a baggag…

Ḥusayn Niẓām S̲h̲āh

(545 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, the third ruler of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī sultanate of Aḥmadnagar, reg . 961-72/1554-65. He was the eldest son of Burhān I Niẓām S̲h̲āh, whose example he followed in adopting the S̲h̲īʿa forms of worship (for the political implications of this in the Deccan see niẓām s̲h̲āhīs ); he succeeded him as al-Muʾayyad min ʿind Allāh Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh (regnal title from Burhān-i maʾāt̲h̲ir ; no coins of this reign are known) without difficulty, having been able to remove other possible claimants from Aḥmadnagar city during his father’s lifetine, but w…

Mēdinī Rāʾī

(769 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a leader, as Rāʾī C̀and Pūrbīya, of the Pūrbīya (= "eastern") Rād̲j̲pūts, with tribal possessions in the Čāndērī [ q.v.] district and hence feudatories of the sultans of Mālwā [ q.v.], who became prominent in Mālwā-Gud̲j̲arāt-Mēwār-Dihlī politics early in the 10th/16th century. The Mālwā succession had been fiercely contested after the death of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī in 916/1510, who had designated his third son, Aʿẓam Humāyūn, as his heir. He duly succeeded, as Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī II [ q.v.], with his elder brothers S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn and Ṣāḥib Ḵh̲ān as active …

D̲j̲awnpur

(1,529 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
( Jaunpur ), city on the Gumtī in Uttar Pradesh, north India, lat. 25° 48′ N., long. 82° 42′ E., and the surrounding district. The city was founded in 760/1359 by Fīrūz S̲h̲āh Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.], near the ancient Manāyč reduced by Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azni in 409/1018 and renamed Ẓafarābād by Ẓafar K̲h̲ān, its governor under G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ after 721/1321. Muslim historians derive the name Ḏj̲awnpur from Ḏj̲awna S̲h̲āh, Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s title before his accession; but D̲j̲amanpur is known as a by-form of the name (? connexion with Ḏj̲awn=D̲j̲amnā, [ q.v.]; Skt. Yamunendrapura…

Īdar

(440 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, name of a fortified town in northern Gud̲j̲arāt, 100 km. north-east of Aḥmadābād, and of its surrounding territory, largely mountainous. The former rād̲j̲ā s of Īdar were in the 8th/14th century a constant thorn in the flesh of the first governors in Gud̲j̲arāt of the Dihlī sultanate, and military action was almost always required to collect the tribute the governors exacted. After Gud̲j̲arāt became an independent sultanate Aḥmad S̲h̲āh I was similarly troubled, and the strength of Īdar, so near…

Ḥaydarābād

(5,009 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
( a) the name of a city in the Deccan (Dakhan) of India, situated 17° 22′ N., 78° 27′ E., now the capital city of the Indian state of Āndhra Pradēs̲h̲, and formerly the capital successively of the later Ḳuṭb S̲h̲āhī kings of Golkond́ā, of a Mug̲h̲al ṣūba after Awrangzīb’s conquest of the Deccan, of the Niẓām, and of the state of Ḥaydarābād after the independence of India; ( b) the name of a former state of the Indian Union, now absorbed within the provinces of Āndhra Pradēs̲h̲, Mahārās̲h̲tra, and Mysore (Mahisur); formerly the territory of H.E.H. (‘His ¶ Exalted Highnes…

Ḳandahār

(292 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(Deccan), locally often spelt Ḳand̲h̲ār, Kand̲h̲ār to distinguish it from its illustrious Afg̲h̲ān namesake, is a plains fort and the surrounding taʿalluḳ , mainly agricultural, known to have been part of the Bahmanī [ q.v.] dominions, from whom it later passed to the ʿĀdil S̲h̲āhīs. It seems, however, to have known previous Muslim occupation, since the main gate bears an inscription of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.] ( EIM 1919-20, 16-7) and was presumably occupied by him on his expedition to south India. The fort, 25 miles south-west of Nandeŕ, is remarkable for i…

Hūlāgū

(179 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a Mongol noble of Lāhawr (Lahore), whose brief rise to power in that city in about 735/1335 was symptomatic of the general resentment felt at Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s rule. When the sultan had left Dihlī for the south of India to put down the ¶ rebellion of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Aḥsan [ q.v.] Hūlāgū killed Tātār Ḵh̲ān, governor of Lāhawr, appointed Gul Čandra (?) the Khokar his minister, and proclaimed his independence. On the news reaching Dihlī, the wazīr K̲h̲wād̲j̲a D̲j̲ahān, who had not yet followed the sultan south, marched to Lāhawr with an army and put down the rebellion…

Maḥmud K̲h̲an

(401 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, Naṣīr al-Dīn , the founder of a short-lived dynasty ruling in Kālpī [ q.v.] in the first half of the 9th/15th century. He was the son of Malikzāda Fīrūz b. Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Turk, the wazīr of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ II, who was killed with his sovereign in Dihlī in 791/1389; after that event he fled to Kālpī, his iḳṭāʿ , gave it the honorific name of Muḥammadābād, and “aspired to independence” ( dam az istiḳlāl mīzad ). This was not difficult to attain in the disrupted conditions of the Dihlī sultanate after Tīmūr’s sack and withdrawal, and Maḥm…

Dāniyāl

(121 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, called Sulṭān Dāniyāl in the histories, the youngest and favourite son of the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar, born Ad̲j̲mēr 2 D̲j̲umāda I 979/22 September 1571. In 1008/1599 he was appointed military governor of the Deccan, and after his conquest of the city of Aḥmadnagar (1009/1601) he was honoured by Akbar and given the province of K̲h̲āndēs̲h̲, fancifully named Dāndēs̲h̲ after him. He is described as well-built, good-looking, fond of horses, and skilful in the composition of Hindūstānī poems. He figures in Abu ’l-Faḍl’s lists of the grandees of the empire ( Āʾīn-i Akbarī

S̲h̲arīf D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Aḥsan

(309 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, d. 740/1339, first Sultan of Madura [ q.v.]. A native of Kaythal in the Pand̲j̲āb, he is known from a well-inscription (cf. B. D. Verma, in Epigraphia Indica , Arabic and Persian Supplement , 1955-6, 109 ff.) to have been nāʾib-i iḳṭāʿ in the province of Maʿbar [ q.v.] in 725/ 1324; later he was appointed governor by Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ (or, according to ʿIṣāmī, Futūḥ al-Salāṭīn , 449, was kotwāl [ q.v.] at Madura and usurped the government), but shortly after This, in 735/1335, he proclaimed his independence under the title of D̲j̲alāl al-(Dunyā wa ’l)-Dīn Aḥsan…

Bharoč

(565 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
A district in Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.] in the present Bombay State, India, of about 1450 sq.m. and with a population of some 300,000; the Islamic population was about 20% of the total prior to partition in 1947, but much of this has since moved to Sind in Pakistān. The principal class of Muslims was Bohrā [see bohorās ]. Bharoč is also the name of the principal town of that district, Lat. 21°42′N., Long. 73° 2′E. It is first known as a town within the Mawrya dominions, and later (c. 150 A.D.) to have been in the hands of Parthian Sāhas; from the Middle Indian form bharugaccha- of the Sanskrit bhṛgukṣetra-
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