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(264 words)

Author(s): Busse, H.
, a palace built by the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳ ruler ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳubād I (616-34/1219-37) in the years between 1224-26, ca. 4 miles northwest of Kayseri. The place is now called Kiybad Çiftliği, at the foot of the Kiybad Dağ; nearby is the plain of Mas̲h̲had (Mas̲h̲hadiyya), where reviews of the troops took place. The road Kayseri-Boğazköprü, on which the palace was situated, was in use from pre-Roman times down to the Ottoman domination. Situated northeast of Konya in the heart of the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳ territory, Kayḳubād…

ʿIzz al-Dīn

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Busse, H.
This laḳab originated within the same historical context as alḳāb constructed with dawla. The muḍāfāt are for the most part identical with those mentioned under ʿizz al-dawla , and can be classified according to their meaning in the same groups, at least in earlier times. In the light of this nomenclature, it is very doubtful if the laḳab on a coin from Wāsiṭ of the year 256/869-70 should indeed read ʿAlī al-Dīn. The first indubitable laḳab with dīn mentioned in the narrative sources was granted to the Kurdish Barzikānī amīr Badr b. Ḥasan-wayh in 38…


(8,430 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Bosworth, C.E. | Wansbrough, J. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Et al.
, one of many Arabic words used to express the concept of “gift”, and the preferred legal term for it, see following article. The giving of gifts, that is, the voluntary transfer of property, serves material and psychological purposes. In the pre-history of man, it probably antedates the contractual payment for goods and services. In Islam, it has retained its inherited functions as an important component of the social fabric and has exercised a considerable influence on political life. Literature (in the narrow sense…

Mud̲j̲īr al-Dīn al-ʿUlaymī

(955 words)

Author(s): Busse, H.
, Abu l’-Yumn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad al-Ḥanbalī al-Maḳdisī, Arab historian, born in Jerusalem in 810/1456. After his studies in Cairo, he was first appointed judge in Ramla, then became ḳaḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt in Jerusalem, which office he held until 922/1516. He died in the town of his birth in 928/1522. He is the author of a commentary on the Ḳurʾān ( Fatḥ al-Raḥmān fī tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān ) in two volumes, of a collection of biographies of Ḥanbalī fuḳahāʾ ( al-Manhad̲j̲ al-aḥmad fī tarād̲j̲īm aṣḥāb al-Imām Aḥmad ), probably also of a guide for the visiting of the Prophet’s tomb in Medina ( Itḥāf al-zāʾ…


(4,110 words)

Author(s): Busse, H. | Heyd, U. | Hardy, P.
, basic meanings: 1. Command, 2. (preparation in writing of a command) Edict, Document. Ancient Persian framānā ( fra = “fore”, Greek πρό), modern Persian farmān through dropping the ending ā and insertion of a vowel owing to the initial double consonant (still fra- in Pahlavi). In the derived verb farmūdan the ā of the stem became ū (after the third century: far-mūdan , analogous to āz-mūdan “to try”, pay-mūdan “to measure”, numūdan “to show”, etc.). In Firdawsī farmān is found with the following meanings: command, authority, will, wish, permission; and farmūdan accordingly: to comma…


(17,714 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Reychmann, J. | Zajaczkowski, A.
i.— Classical arabic 1) Diplomatic has reached the status of a special science in the West, and the results of such research are accessible in good manuals (like Harry Bresslau’s Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien , 2nd. ed. 1931). Much less work has been done on Arabic documents: the material is very scattered, and not yet sufficiently collated to permit detailed research. Yet Arabic documents have aroused interest for some considerable time: a number have been published, and the editing o…

ʿIzz al-Dawla

(761 words)

Author(s): Busse, H.
, an honorary title ( laḳab [ q.v.], pl. alḳāb ) of the kind which came into being at the beginning of the 4th/10th century, conferred by caliphs and later also by other sovereigns. The first person to receive an honorary title composed with dawla was the vizier of the caliph al-Muktafī (902-8), al-Ḳāsim; in 289/902 he was entitled Walī al-Dawla (Friend of the Dynasty). Originally dawla [ q.v.] signified: turn, reversal (especially in battle), then it became the designation of the old Mahdī propaganda, and from the middle of the 3rd/9th century attained the mean…

Muʿizz al-Dawla

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Busse, H.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn Aḥmad b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Fanāk̲h̲usraw Būya, b. 303/915-16, the youngest of the Three Būyids of the first generation, founder of Būyid rule in Bag̲h̲dād, d. 356/967. While serving under ʿAlī, his eldest brother (the later ʿImād al-Dawla [ q.v.]), who had taken power in central and southern Iran, Aḥmad subdued Kirmān in 323/935. In 326/938 ʿImād al-Dawla ordered him to K̲h̲ūzistān to support Abū ʿAbd Allāh Aḥmad al-Barīdī [ q.v.], who ruled this province as independent governor, but was threatened by Ibn Rāʾiḳ and Bad̲j̲kam [ q.vv.], the chief amīrs ( amīr al-umarāʾ


(918 words)

Author(s): Busse, H.
, as epithet of the ruler. The word humāyūn is frequently used in the S̲h̲āhnāma with the meaning of “fortunate, glorious, royal”. Its specialized use for things or ideas connected with the ruler is already seen here in the designation of the legendary imperial banner as dirafs̲h̲-i humāyūn . ¶ It was only slowly, however, that the word penetrated into Persian chancery style. In the ins̲h̲āʾ work ʿAtabat al-kataba of Muntad̲j̲ab al-Dīn D̲j̲uwaynī, which was compiled towards the end of the Great Seld̲j̲ūḳ period, the idea does not yet appear. It is only in the chancery of the K̲h̲wārazms̲h̲āh…