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Abd̲j̲ad

(869 words)

Author(s): Weil, G. | Colin, G.S.
(or Abad̲j̲ad or Abū Ḏj̲ad ), the first of the eight mnemotechnical terms into which the twenty-eight consonants of the Arabic alphabet were divided. In the East, the whole series of these voces memoriales is ordered and, in general, vocalized as follows: ʾabd̲j̲ad hawwaz ḥuṭṭiy kalaman saʿfaṣ ḳaras̲h̲at t̲h̲ak̲h̲ad̲h̲ ḍaẓag̲h̲ . In the West (North Africa and the Iberian peninsula) groups no. 5, 6 and 8 were differently arranged; the complete list was as follows: ʾabad̲j̲id hawazin ḥuṭiyin kalamnin ṣaʿfaḍin ḳurisat t̲h̲ak̲h̲ud̲h̲ ẓag̲h̲s̲h̲in . ¶ The first six groups of the Ori…

al-Barānis

(504 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, name of one of the two groups of tribes which together constitute the Berber nation [ q.v.], that of the other being the Butr. It represents the plural of the name of their common eponynxous ancestor: Burnus; for a possible origin of this name see butr. According to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, the Barānis comprised five great peoples: Awraba, ʿAd̲j̲īsa, Azdād̲j̲a, Maṣmūda-G̲h̲umāra. Kutāma-Zawāwa, Ṣanhād̲j̲a, Hawwāra. Whether, however, the last three belong to this group is a matter of controversy; they are considered by some to be descendants of Ḥimyar…

Lamṭa

(330 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, a large Berber tribe of the Barānis family. Its exact origin does not seem to have been known to the Arab and Berber genealogists, who simply make them brethren of the Ṣanhād̲j̲a, Haskūra and Gazūla; others give them a Ḥimyarite origin like the Hawwāra and the Lawāta [ q.vv.]. The Lamṭa were one of the nomadic tribes who wore a veil ( mulat̲h̲t̲h̲amūn ). One section lived on the south of the Mzāb, between the Massūfa on the west and the Tārga (Tuareg) on the east; they even seem to have extended as far as the Niger. In the south of Mo…

Čay

(483 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
Tea appears to be mentioned for the first time in an Arabic text by the author of the Ak̲h̲bār al-Ṣīn wa’l-Hind (ed. and transl. by J. Sauvaget, 18), under the form sāk̲h̲ , whereas al-Bīrūnī, Nubad̲h̲ fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Ṣīn , ed. Krenkow, in MMIA, xiii (1955), 388, calls it more correctly d̲j̲aʾ . It was introduced into Europe towards the middle of the 16th century by the Dutch East Indies company; but it is only in the middle of 17th century that its use spread, particularly in England. In Morocco the first mention of tea dates back to 1700. It was a French merchant, with business co…

Ḥinnāʾ

(825 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, henna (known to botanists as the Lawsonia alba of Lamarck, a name preferable to the L. inarmis of Linnaeus, which corresponds only to the young form of the plant, the adult form being spinosa ), shrub whose leaves possess medical properties and are used as a dye. In Arabic, the word most commonly used is ḥinnāʾ , but in the earlier language there were used other words which, however, were applied also to other dye-producing plants: saffron ( zaʿfarān ), safflower ( ḳurṭum , ʿuṣfur ) and curcuma ( kurkum ); these are yarannā and raḳūn , riḳān , irḳān ; the three last are perhaps connected with yaraḳān…

Maṣmūda

(4,061 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
(the broken plural Maṣāmida is also found), one of the principal Berber ethnic groups forming a branch of the Barānis. If we set aside the Maṣmūda elements mentioned by al-Bakrī in the neighbourhood of Bône, the post-Islamic Maṣmūda seem to have lived exclusively in the western extremity of the Mag̲h̲rib: and as far back as one goes in the history of the interior of Morocco, we find them forming with the Ṣanhād̲j̲a [ q.v.], another group of Barānis Berbers, the main stock of the Berber population of this country. Indeed, from the first Arab conquest in the 1st/7th ce…

Dār al-Ṣināʿa

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Cahen, Cl.
(also, but more rarely: Dār al-ṣanʿa ). Etymologically, this compound can be translated “industrial establishment, workshop”. In fact it is always applied to a State workshop: for example, under the Umayyads in Spain to establishments for gold and silver work intended for the sovereign, and for the manufacture and stock-piling of arms. But the sense most widely used is that of “establishment for the construction and equipment of warships”: dār ṣināʿa li-ins̲h̲āʾ al-sufun ; or simply dār al-ins̲h̲āʾ , which also occurs. This does not include the arsen…

Tādlā

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Colin, G. S.
(or Tādilā), the Tedle of Leo Africanus, a district of Morocco comprising the plateaus which stretch to the west of the high valley of ¶ the Wādī Umm al-Rabīʿ, as well as the western slopes of the Central Atlas, from Wādī ’l-ʿAbīd to the sources of the Moluya. The classical ethnic Tādilī is no longer used except for the S̲h̲orfā of the district; the popular ethnic is Tādlāwī. The region of the plateaus is occupied by six semi-nomad tribes of Arab origin: Urdīg̲h̲a, Bnī Ḵh̲īrān. Bnī Zemmūr, Smāʿla, Bnī ʿĀmer, Bnī Mūsā, whose centres are Wād Zem, Bujad (= Bed̲j̲d̲…

Bādis

(652 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, a town (now in ruins) and anchorage on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. It is 68¼ m. (110 km.) south-east of Tetuan, between the territory of the G̲h̲umāra [ q.v.] and the Rīf [ q.v.] properly so-called. It is situated on the territory of the Banū Yaṭṭūfat ( vulgo: Bni Yiṭṭōft) near the mouth of a torrent named Tālā-n-Bādis ( vulgo: Tālembādes). An attempt has been made to identify it with the Parietina of the Itinerary of Antoninus; but this ancient place-name could equally well refer to the more sheltered cove of Yallīs̲h̲ (= Iris on our maps) which is only 7 km. to the south-west. The town of…

Banīḳa

(345 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, (plur. banāʾiḳ ), an Arabic word which has been subject to considerable semantic evolution. In early Arabic, its meaning is disputed by the lexicographers (cf. Ibn Sīda, Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ , iv, 84-85; ¶ TA, s.v.). The primitive meaning seems to have been “any piece inserted ( ruḳʿa ) to widen a tunic ( ḳamīṣ ) or a leather bucket ( dalw )”. In the case of the ḳamīṣ, according to some authorities, banāʾiḳ were “snippets” of material, in the form of very elongated triangles, inserted vertically below the armholes, along the lateral seams of the garment, to give greater fu…

Hiba

(8,430 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Bosworth, C.E. | Wansbrough, J. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Et al.
, one of many Arabic words used to express the concept of “gift”, and the preferred legal term for it, see following article. The giving of gifts, that is, the voluntary transfer of property, serves material and psychological purposes. In the pre-history of man, it probably antedates the contractual payment for goods and services. In Islam, it has retained its inherited functions as an important component of the social fabric and has exercised a considerable influence on political life. Literature (in the narrow …

Dallāl

(817 words)

Author(s): Becker, C.H. | Colin, G.S.
(ar.) “broker”, “agent”. Dallāl , literally “guide”; is the popular Arabic word for simsār , sensal . In the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs we find, on the word simsār: “This is the man known as a dallāl ; he shows the purchaser where to find the goods he requires, and the seller how to exact his price”. Very little is known from the Arabic sources about the origins of these brokers, who have been of such great importance in economic affairs. The dallāl corresponded to the Byzantine μεδίτης. In the absence of any systematic earlier studies, only certain items of information collected at r…

Melilla

(1,236 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
(in modern Arabic: Mlīlya , Berber Tamlilt , "the white"; in the Arab geographers, Malīla ), a seaport on the east coast of Morocco on a promontory on the peninsula of Gelʿiyya at the end of which is the Cape Tres Forcas or the Three Forks ( Rās Hurk of the Arab geographers, now Rās Werk ). Melilla probably corresponds to the Rusadir of the ancients (cf. Rhyssadir oppidum et portus (Pliny, v. 18), Russadir Colonia of the Ant…

Dīwān

(16,419 words)

Author(s): Duri, A.A. | Gottschalk, H.L. | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a collection of poetry or prose [see ʿarabiyya ; persian literature ; turkish literature ; urdū literature and s̲h̲iʿr ], a register, or an office. Sources differ about linguistic roots. Some ascribe to it a Persian origin from dev , ‘mad’ or ‘devil’, to describe secretaries. Others consider it Arabic from dawwana , to collect or to register, thus meaning a collection of records or sheets. (See Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , i, 90; LA, xvii, 23-4; Ṣūlī, Adab al-kuttāb , 187; Māwardī, al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya , 175; D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , ¶ 16-17; cf. Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ ,…

Garsīf

(677 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
(in the Marīnid period Agarsīf occurs quite as frequently; the occlusive Berber g is some times transcribed in Arabic characters as d̲j̲īm , sometimes as kāf , each distinguished by three diacritical points), the Guercif of French maps, a small place in eastern Morocco 60 km. east of Taza, in the middle of the immense Tāfrāṭa steppe. It is situated on the spit of land between the Mulullū and Moulouya rivers at their confluence; hence its name (Berber ger- “between” and āsīf “river”). Marmol wished to identify Guercif with Ptolemy’s Galapha but this is scarcely l…

Āgdāl

(86 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
(Berber), a term borrowed by the Arabic of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia from Berber, with the same meaning as in that language namely "pasturage reserved for the exclusive use of the landowner". In Morocco, however, the word has acquired the special sense of "a wide expanse of pasture lands, surrounded by high walls and adjoining the Sultan’s palace, reserved for the exclusive use of his cavalry and livestock". Such enclosures exist in each of the royal cities, Fez, Meknes, Rabāṭ and Marrākus̲h̲. (G.S. Colin)

S̲h̲āwiya

(2,712 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Lancaster, W. Fidelity | O. Jastrow
(a., pl. of s̲h̲āwī ) “sheep-breeder or herder”, a term applied to groups in various parts of the Arab world. 1. The Mag̲h̲rib. Here the term, originally applied in contempt, has become the general designation of several groups, of which the most important are, in Morocco, the S̲h̲āwiya of Tāmasnā and in Algeria, the S̲h̲āwiya of the Awrās. E. Doutté ( Marrâkech , 4-5) mentions several other groups of less importance. An endeavour has also been made to connect Shoa, the name of a district in Abyssinia, with S̲h̲āwiya. Wherever it is found, the term is applied to Berbers of the Zanāt…

Baraka

(324 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, blessing. In the Ḳurʾān, the word is used only in the plural: barakāt , like raḥma and salām , are sent to man by God. It can be translated by “beneficent force, of divine origin, which causes superabundance in the physical sphere and prosperity and happiness in the psychic order”. Naturally, the text of the Ḳurʾān ( kalāmu-llāh ) is charged with baraka . God can implant an emanation of baraka in the person of his prophets and saints: Muḥammad and his descendants are especially endowed therewith. These sacred personages, in their turn, may communicate the effluvi…

Filāḥa

(13,214 words)

Author(s): Shihabi, Mustafa al- | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Habib, Irfan
, agriculture. Falḥ , the act of cleaving and cutting, when applied to the soil has the meaning of “to break up in order to cultivate”, or “to plough”. Fallāḥ “ploughman”, filāḥa “ploughing”. But from pre-Islamic times the word filāḥa has assumed a wider meaning to denote the occupation of husbandry, agriculture. In this sense it is synonymous with zirāʿa , to which the ancients preferred filāḥa (all the earlier writers called their works on agriculture Kitāb al-Filāḥa ). At the present time this latter word is very widely used in North Africa, both …

Ḳāʾid

(771 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
(A.), an imprecise term, but one always used to designate a military leader whose rank might vary from captain to general. Semantically, it is the equivalent of the Latin dux . The plural most frequently employed by historians is ḳuwwād . For the army in Muslim Spain, this title corresponded to general or even commander-in-chief. In the navy, ḳāʾid al-usṭūl (= ḳāʾid ʿala ’l-usṭūl ) or ḳāʾid al-baḥr (= ḳāʾid ʿala ’l-baḥr , ḳāʾid fi ’l-baḥr ) was equivalent to “admiral”. But Ibn K̲h̲aldūn intimates that the term current among sailors of his day was al-miland (pronounced with a back lām
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