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(15,859 words)

Author(s): Nagel, Tilman | Ende, Werner | Radtke, Bernd | Rudolph, Ulrich | Krawietz, Birgit | Et al.
[German Version] I. Origin and Spread – II. Doctrine – III. Islamic Philosophy – IV. Islamic Art (Architecture and Book Art) – V. Islamic Studies – VI. Christianity and Islam – VII. Judaism and Islam – VIII. Islam in Europe – IX. Islam in North America – X. Political Islamism I. Origin and Spread 1. Muḥammad and his message In 569 ce, Muḥammad was born in Mecca, a city with the shrine of the Kaʿba at its center. Mecca enjoyed good relations with the Sasanian Empire and its Arab vassal princes in Ḥīra, but considered itself politically independen…


(131 words)

Author(s): Ende, Werner
[German Version] is the widespread designation in the Islamic world for a person with (mainly religious) education. The term seems to be derived from the Arabic Maulā (“lord, master” etc.). Especially in the areas of Turkish and Iranian language and culture, and on the Indian subcontinent, the term has taken on very diverse colorings in the course of history. It can still be used as an honorific title for distinguished scholars, Sufi masters or religio-political leaders; but also, to some degree pejoratively, for members…